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Unformatted text preview: Introductory Chemistry, 2nd Edition Nivaldo Tro Chapter 3 Matter and Energy Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA 2006, Prentice Hall In Your Room • Everything you can see, touch, smell or taste in your room is made of matter. • Chemists study the differences in matter and how that relates to the structure of matter. Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 2 What is Matter? • Matter is defined as anything that occupies space and has mass • Even though it appears to be smooth and continuous, matter is actually composed of a lot of tiny little pieces we call atoms and molecules Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 3 Atoms and Molecules • Atoms are the tiny particles that make up all matter. • In most substances, the atoms are joined together in units called molecules Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 4 Classifying Matter by Physical State • matter can be classified as solid, liquid or gas based on what properties it exhibits State Solid Liquid Gas Shape Fixed Indef. Indef. Volume Fixed Fixed Indef. Compress No No Yes Flow No Yes Yes •Fixed = keeps shape when placed in a container, •Indefinite = takes the shape of the container Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 5 Structure Determines Properties • the atoms or molecules have different structures in solids, liquid and gases, leading to different properties 6 Solids • the particles in a solid are packed close together and are fixed in position though they may vibrate • the close packing of the particles results in solids being incompressible • the inability of the particles to move around results in solids retaining their shape and volume when placed in a new container; and prevents the particles from flowing Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 7 Solids • some solids have their particles arranged in an orderly geometric pattern – we call these crystalline solids salt and diamonds • other solids have particles that do not show a regular geometric pattern over a long range – we call these amorphous solids plastic and glass Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 8 Liquids • the particles in a liquid are closely packed, but they have some ability to move around • the close packing results in liquids being incompressible • but the ability of the particles to move allows liquids to take the shape of their container and to flow – however they don’t have enough freedom to escape and expand to fill the container Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 9 Gases • in the gas state, the particles have complete freedom from each other • the particles are constantly flying around, bumping into each other and the container • in the gas state, there is a lot of empty space between the particles on average Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 10 Gases • because there is a lot of empty space, the particles can be squeezed closer together – therefore gases are compressible • because the particles are not held in close contact and are moving freely, gases expand to fill and take the shape of their container, and will flow Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 11 Classifying Matter by Composition • matter that is composed of only one kind of piece is called a pure substance • matter that is composed of different kinds of pieces is called a mixture • because pure substances always have only one kind of piece, all samples show the same properties • however, because mixtures have variable composition, different samples will show different properties Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 12 Copper – a Pure Substance • • • • • color – brownish red shiny, malleable and ductile excellent conductor of heat and electricity melting point = 1084.62°C density = 8.96 g/cm3 at 20°C Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 13 Brass – a Mixture Type Color % Cu % Zn Density g/cm3 5 10 12.5 15 20 30 33 40 8.86 8.80 8.78 8.75 8.67 8.47 8.42 8.39 MP °C 1066 1043 1035 1027 999 954 940 904 Tensile Strength psi 50K 61K 66K 70K 74K 76K 70K 70K Uses Gilding Commercial Jewelry Red Low Cartridge Common Muntz metal redish bronze bronze golden deep yellow yellow yellow yellow 95 90 87.5 85 80 70 67 60 pre-83 pennies, munitions, plaques door knobs, grillwork costume jewelry electrical sockets, fasteners & eyelets musical instruments, clock dials car radiator cores lamp fixtures, bead chain nuts & bolts, 14 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 Classification of Matter Matter Pure Substance Constant Composition Homogeneous Mixture Variable Composition • Pure Substance = all samples are made of the same pieces in the same percentages salt • Mixtures = different samples may have the same pieces in different percentages salt water Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 15 Classification of Mixtures • homogeneous = matter that is uniform throughout appears to be one thing every piece of a sample has identical properties, though another sample with the same components may have different properties solutions (homogeneous mixtures) • heterogeneous = matter that is non-uniform throughout contains regions with different properties than other regions Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 16 Pure Substances vs. Mixtures • Pure Substances 1) all samples have the same physical and chemical properties 2) constant composition = all samples have the same pieces in the same percentages 3) homogeneous 4) separate into components based on chemical properties 5) temperature usually stays constant while melting or boiling • Mixtures 1) different samples may show different properties 2) variable composition = samples made with the same pure substances may have different percentages 3) homogeneous or heterogeneous 4) separate into components based on physical properties 5) temperature changes while melting or boiling because composition changes 17 Classifying Pure Substances Elements and Compounds • Substances which can not be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions are called elements • Most substances are chemical combinations of elements. These are called compounds. Compounds can be broken down into elements Properties of the compound not related to the properties of the elements that compose it Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 18 Atoms & Molecules • Smallest piece of an element is called an atom there are subatomic particles, but these are no longer the element • Smallest piece of a compound is called a molecule molecules are made of atoms all molecules of a compound are identical each molecule has the same number and type of atoms Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 19 Classifying Matter Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 20 Elements • 116 known, of which about 91 are found in nature others are man-made • Abundance = percentage found in nature oxygen most abundant element (by mass) on earth and in the human body • the abundance and form of an element varies in different parts of the environment • every sample of an element is made up of lots of identical atoms Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 21 Compounds • composed of elements in fixed percentages water is 89% O & 11% H • billions of known compounds • organic or inorganic • same elements can form more than one different compound water and hydrogen peroxide contain just hydrogen and oxygen carbohydrates all contain just C, H & O Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 22 Properties of Matter • Physical Properties are the characteristics of matter that can be changed without changing its composition characteristics that are directly observable • Chemical Properties are the characteristics that determine how the composition of matter changes as a result of contact with other matter or the influence of energy characteristics that describe the behavior of matter Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 23 Some Physical Properties mass solid melting point taste texture electrical conductance malleability volume liquid boiling point odor shape thermal conductance ductility Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 density gas volatility color solubility magnetism specific heat capcity 24 Some Chemical Properties Acidity Causticity Reactivity Inertness (In)Flammability Oxidizing Ability Basicity (aka Alkalinity) Corrosiveness Stability Explosiveness Combustibility Reducing Ability 25 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 Some Physical Properties of Iron • iron is a silvery solid at room temperature with a metallic taste and smooth texture • iron melts at 1538°C and boils at 4428°C • iron’s density is 7.87 g/cm3 • iron can be magnetized • iron conducts electricity, but not as well as most other common metals • iron’s ductility and thermal conductivity are about average for a metal • it requires 0.45 J of heat energy to raise the temperature of one gram of iron by 1°C Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 26 Some Chemical Properties of Iron • iron is easily oxidized in moist air to form rust • when iron is added to hydrochloric acid, it produces a solution of ferric chloride and hydrogen gas • iron is more reactive than silver, but less reactive than magnesium Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 27 Changes in Matter • Physical Changes - changes in the properties of matter that do not effect its composition Heating water raises its temperature, but it is still water Evaporating butane from a lighter Dissolving sugar in water even though the sugar seems to disappear, it can easily be separated back into sugar and water by evaporation Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 28 Changes in Matter • Chemical Changes involve a change in the properties of matter that change its composition a Chemical Reaction rusting is iron combining with oxygen to make iron(III) oxide burning butane from a lighter changes it into carbon dioxide and water silver combines with sulfur in the air to make tarnish Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 29 Is it a Physical or Chemical Change? • a physical change results in a different form of the same substance the kinds of molecules don’t change • a chemical change results in one or more completely new substances the new substances have different molecules than the original substances you will observe different physical properties because the new substances have their own physical properties Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 30 Phase Changes are Physical Changes • • • • • • • Boiling = liquid to gas Melting = solid to liquid Subliming = solid to gas Condensing = gas to liquid Freezing = liquid to solid Deposition = gas to solid state changes require heating or cooling the substance evaporation is not a simple phase change, it is a solution process Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 31 Separation of Mixtures • Separate mixtures based on different physical properties of the components Physical change Different Physical Property Boiling Point State of Matter (solid/liquid/gas) Adherence to a Surface Volatility Density Technique Distillation Filtration Chromatography Evaporation Centrifugation & Decanting 32 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 Distillation 33 Filtration Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 34 Law of Conservation of Mass • Antoine Lavoisier • “Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction” • the total amount of matter present before a chemical reaction is always the same as the total amount after • the total mass of all the reactants is equal to the total mass of all the products Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 35 Conservation of Mass • Total amount of matter remains constant in a chemical reaction • 58 grams of butane burns in 208 grams of oxygen to form 176 grams of carbon dioxide and 90 grams of water. butane + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water 58 grams + 208 grams → 176 grams + 90 grams 266 grams = 266 grams Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 36 Energy • there are things that do not have mass and volume • these things fall into a category we call Energy • Energy is anything that has the capacity to do work • even though Chemistry is the study of matter, matter is effected by energy it can cause physical and/or chemical changes in matter Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 37 Law of Conservation of Energy • “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed” • the total amount of energy in the universe is constant – there is no process that can increase or decrease that amount • however we can transfer energy from one place in the universe to another, and we can change its form Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 38 Matter Possesses Energy • when a piece of matter possesses energy, it can give some or all of it to another object • all chemical and physical changes result in the matter changing energy Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 39 Kinds of Energy Kinetic and Potential • Kinetic Energy is energy of motion, or energy that is being transferred from one object to another • Potential Energy is energy that is stored Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 40 Some Forms of Energy • Electrical kinetic energy associated with the flow of electrical charge • Heat or Thermal Energy kinetic energy associated with molecular motion • Light or Radiant Energy kinetic energy associated with energy transitions in an atom • Nuclear potential energy in the nucleus of atoms • Chemical potential energy in the attachment of atoms or because of their position Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 41 Using Energy • we use energy to accomplish all kinds of processes, but according to the Law of Conservation of Energy we don’t really use it up! • when we use energy we are changing it from one form to another for example, converting the chemical energy in gasoline into mechanical energy to make your car move Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 42 “Losing” Energy • if a process was 100% efficient, we could theoretically get all the energy transformed into a useful form • but unfortunately we cannot get a 100% efficient process • the energy “lost” in the process is energy transformed into a form we cannot use • most of the energy in the combustion of gasoline is transformed into sound or heat energy that escapes into the air and some of it remains stored in the products of the reaction – carbon dioxide and water Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 43 Units of Energy • calorie (cal) is the amount of energy needed to raise one gram of water by 1°C kcal = energy needed to raise 1000 g of water 1°C food Calories = kcals Energy Conversion Factors 1 calorie (cal) 1 Calorie (Cal) 1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = = = 4.184 joules (J) 1000 calories (cal) 3.60 x 106 joules (J) 44 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 Energy Use Unit Energy Required to Raise Temperature of 1 g of Water by 1°C Energy Required to Light 100-W Bulb for 1 hr Energy Used by Average U.S. Citizen in 1 day joule (J) calorie (cal) Calorie (Cal) kWh 4.18 1 0.001 1.1 x 10-6 3.6 x 105 8.6 x 104 86 0.10 9.0 x 108 2.15 x 108 215,000 250 45 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 Example 3.5: Conversion of Energy Units Example: • A candy bar contains 225 Cal of nutritional energy. How many joules does it contain? Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 47 Example: A candy bar contains 225 Cal of nutritional energy. How many joules does it contain? • Write down the given quantity and its units. Given: 225 Cal Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 48 Example: A candy bar contains 225 Cal of nutritional energy. How many joules does it contain? Information Given: 225 Cal • Write down the quantity to find and/or its units. Find: ? joules Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 49 Example: A candy bar contains 225 Cal of nutritional energy. How many joules does it contain? Information Given: 225 Cal Find: ? J • Collect Needed Conversion Factors: 1000 cal = 1 Cal 4.184 J = 1 cal Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 50 Example: A candy bar contains 225 Cal of nutritional energy. How many joules does it contain? Information Given: 225 Cal Find: ? J Conv. Fact. 1000 cal = 1 Cal; 4.184 J = 1 cal • Write a Solution Map for converting the units : Cal cal J 1000 cal 1 Cal 4.184 J 1 cal 51 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 Example: A candy bar contains 225 Cal of nutritional energy. How many joules does it contain? Information Given: 225 Cal Find: ? J Conv. Fact. 1000 cal = 1 Cal; 4.184 J = 1 cal Sol’n Map: Cal → cal → J 1000 cal 1 Cal 4.184 J 1 cal • Apply the Solution Map: 1000 cal 4.184 J 225 Cal × × 1 Cal 1 cal • Sig. Figs. & Round: = 941400 J = 9.41 x 105 J Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 52 Example: A candy bar contains 225 Cal of nutritional energy. How many joules does it contain? Information Given: 225 Cal Find: ? J Conv. Fact. 1000 cal = 1 Cal; 4.184 J = 1 cal Sol’n Map: Cal → cal → J 1000 cal 1 Cal 4.184 J 1 cal • Check the Solution: 225 Cal = 9.41 x 105 J The units of the answer, J, are correct. The magnitude of the answer makes sense since joules are much smaller than Cals. Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 53 The Meaning of Heat • Heat is the exchange of thermal energy between samples of matter • heat flows from the matter that has high thermal energy to matter that has low thermal energy until they reach the same temperature • heat is exchanged through molecular collisions between two samples Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 54 The Meaning of Temperature • Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a sample • Not all molecules have in a sample the same amount of kinetic energy • a higher temperature means a larger average kinetic energy Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 55 Temperature Scales 100°C 373 K 298 K 273 K 234.1 K 212°F 75°F 32°F -38°F 671 R 534 R 459 R 421 R BP Water Room Temp MP Ice BP Mercury 25°C 0°C -38.9°C -183°C 90 K -297°F 162 R BP Oxygen -269°C -273°C 4 K 0 K -452°F -459 °F 7 R Celsius Kelvin Fahrenheit BP Helium 0 R Absolute Rankine Zero Temperature Scales • The Fahrenheit Temperature Scale used as its two reference points the freezing point of concentrated saltwater (0°F) and average body temperature (100°F) more accurate measure now set average body temperature at 98.6°F • Room temperature is about 75°F Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 57 Temperature Scales • The Celsius Temperature Scale used as its two reference points the freezing point of distilled water (0°C) and boiling point of distilled water (100°C) more reproducible standards most commonly used in science • Room temperature is about 25°C Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 58 Fahrenheit vs. Celsius • a Celsius degree is 1.8 times larger than a Fahrenheit degree • the standard used for 0° on the Fahrenheit scale is a lower temperature than the standard used for 0° on the Celsius scale (°F - 32) °C = 1.8 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 59 The Kelvin Temperature Scale • both the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales have negative numbers but real physical things are always positive amounts! • the Kelvin scale is an absolute scale, meaning it measures the actual temperature of an object • 0 K is called Absolute Zero. It is too cold for matter to exist at because all molecular motion would stop 0 K = -273°C = -459°F Absolute Zero is a theoretical value obtained by following patterns mathematically Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 60 Kelvin vs. Celsius • the size of a “degree” on the Kelvin scale is the same as on the Celsius scale though technically, we don’t call the divisions on the Kelvin scale degrees; we called them kelvins! that makes 1 K 1.8 times larger than 1°F • the 0 standard on the Kelvin scale is a much lower temperature than on the Celsius scale K = °C + 273 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 61 Example 3.8: Converting Between Fahrenheit and Kelvin Temperature Scales Example: • Convert 310 K to Fahrenheit Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 63 Example: Convert 310 K to Fahrenheit • Write down the given quantity and its units. Given: 310 K Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 64 Example: Convert 310 K to Fahrenheit Information Given: 310 K • Write down the quantity to find and/or its units. Find: ? °F Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 65 Example: Convert 310 K to Fahrenheit Information Given: 310 K Find: ? °F • Collect Needed Equations: (°F - 32) °C = 1.8 K = °C + 273 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 66 Example: Convert 310 K to Fahrenheit Information Given: 310 K Find: ? °F Eq’ns: °C = (°F - 32) 1.8 K = °C + 273 • Write a Solution Map: K °C °F K = °C + 273 K − 273 = °C (°F - 32) °C = 1.8 1.8 × °C = (°F - 32 ) 1.8 × °C + 32 = °F Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 67 Example: Convert 310 K to Fahrenheit Information Given: 310 K Find: ? °F Eq’ns: K − 273 = °C 1.8 × °C + 32 = °F Sol’n Map: K → °C → °F • Apply the Solution Map: K − 273 = °C 310 − 273 = °C 37 = °C • Sig. Figs. & Round: 1.8 × °C + 32 = °F 1.8 × 37 + 32 = °F 98.6 = °F = 99°F 68 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 Example: Convert 310 K to Fahrenheit Information Given: 310 K Find: ? °F Eq’ns: K − 273 = °C 1.8 × °C + 32 = °F Sol’n Map: K → °C → °F • Check the Solution: 310 K = 99 °F The units of the answer, °F, are correct. The magnitude of the answer makes sense since both are above, but close to, Room Temperature. Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 69 Energy and the Temperature of Matter • The amount the temperature of an object increases depends on the amount of heat energy added (q). If you double the added heat energy the temperature will increase twice as much. • The amount the temperature of an object increases depends on its mass If you double the mass it will take twice as much heat energy to raise the temperature the same amount. Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 70 Heat Capacity • heat capacity is the amount of heat a substance must absorb to raise its temperature 1°C cal/°C or J/°C metals have low heat capacities, insulators high • specific heat = heat capacity of 1 gram of the substance cal/g°C or J/g°C waters specific heat = 4.184 J/g°C for liquid or 1.000 cal/g°C less for ice and steam Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 71 Specific Heat Capacity • Specific Heat is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one Celsius degree • the larger a material’s specific heat is, the more energy it takes to raise its temperature a given amount • like density, specific heat is a property of the type of matter it doesn’t matter how much material you have it can be used to identify the type of matter • water’s high specific heat is the reason it is such a good cooling agent it absorbs a lot of heat for a relatively small mass Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 72 Specific Heat Capacities Specific Heat J/g°C Aluminum 0.895 Calcium 0.656 Carbon (dia) 0.508 Carbon (gra) 0.708 Copper 0.377 Gold 0.129 Iron 0.448 Lead 0.129 Silver 0.712 Water (l) 4.184 Water (s) 2.03 Water (g) 2.02 Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 73 Substance Heat Gain or Loss by an Object • the amount of heat energy gained or lost by an object depends on 3 factors – how much material there is, what the material is, and how much the temperature changed Amount of Heat = Mass x Heat Capacity x Temperature Change q = m x C x ΔT Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 74 Example 3.9: Relating Heat Energy to Temperature Change Example: • Gallium is a solid metal at room temperature, but melts at 29.9°C. If you hold gallium in your hand, it melts from body heat. How much heat must 2.5 g of gallium absorb from your hand to raise its temperature from 25.0°C to 29.9°C? The heat capacity of gallium is 0.372 J/g°C Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 76 Example: How much heat must 2.5 g of gallium absorb from your hand to raise its temperature from 25.0°C to 29.9°C? The heat capacity of gallium is 0.372 J/g°C • Write down the given quantity and its units. Given: mass of Ga = 2.5 g starting temp. = 25.0°C final temp. = 29.9°C spec. heat of Ga = 0.372 J/g°C Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 77 Example: How much heat must 2.5 g of gallium absorb from your hand to raise its temperature from 25.0°C to 29.9°C? The heat capacity of gallium is 0.372 J/g°C Information Given: m = 2.5 g; Ti = 25.0°C; Tf = 29.9°C; C = 0.372 J/g°C • Write down the quantity to find and/or its units. Find: amount of heat in joules Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 78 Example: How much heat must 2.5 g of gallium absorb from your hand to raise its temperature from 25.0°C to 29.9°C? The heat capacity of gallium is 0.372 J/g°C Information Given: m = 2.5 g; Ti = 25.0°C; Tf = 29.9°C; C = 0.372 J/g°C Find: q (J) • Collect Needed Equations: q = m • C • ΔT Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 79 Example: How much heat must 2.5 g of gallium absorb from your hand to raise its temperature from 25.0°C to 29.9°C? The heat capacity of gallium is 0.372 J/g°C Information Given: m = 2.5 g; Ti = 25.0°C; Tf = 29.9°C; C = 0.372 J/g°C Find: q (J) Eq’n: q = m · C · ΔT • Write a Solution Map: C, m, ΔT q q = m • C • ΔT Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 80 Example: How much heat must 2.5 g of gallium absorb from your hand to raise its temperature from 25.0°C to 29.9°C? The heat capacity of gallium is 0.372 J/g°C Information Given: m = 2.5 g; Ti = 25.0°C; Tf = 29.9°C; C = 0.372 J/g°C Find: q (J) Eq’n: q = m · C · ΔT Sol’n Map: m,C,ΔT → q • Apply the Solution Map: q = m • C • ΔT ⎛ J⎞ ⎟ • (29.9°C − 25.0°C ) q = (2.5 g ) • ⎜ 0.372 ⎜ g°C ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ J⎞ ⎟ • (4.9°C ) = 4.557 J q = (2.5 g ) • ⎜ 0.372 ⎜ g°C ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ • Sig. Figs. & Round: q = 4.6 J Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 81 Example: How much heat must 2.5 g of gallium absorb from your hand to raise its temperature from 25.0°C to 29.9°C? The heat capacity of gallium is 0.372 J/g°C Information Given: m = 2.5 g; Ti = 25.0°C; Tf = 29.9°C; C = 0.372 J/g°C Find: q (J) Eq’n: q = m · C · ΔT Sol’n Map: m,C,ΔT → q • Check the Solution: q = 4.6 J The units of the answer, J, are correct. The magnitude of the answer makes sense since the temperature change, mass and specific heat are small. Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 3 82 ...
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