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Unformatted text preview: Ir ATP: An Important Source of Energy for Cellular Processes Reacts with H2 0 Inorganic ADP phosphate Activity Functional Groups I’ The Chemical Elements of Life: A Review Living matter is made mostly of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, with some sulfur and phosphorus. Biological diversity has its molecular basis in carbon’s ability to form a huge number of molecules with particular shapes and chemical properties. TESTING YOUR KNOWLEDGE SELF-QUIZ 1. Organic chemistry is currently defined as a. the study of compounds made only by living cells. b. the study of carbon compounds. c. the study of vital forces. d. the study of natural (as opposed to synthetic} compounds. e. the study of hydrocarbons. 2. Which of the following hydrocarbons has a double bond in its carbon skeleton? a. C3H3 d. C2H4 b. CQHG e- CZHQ C. CH4 3. Choose the term that correctly describes the relationship between these two sugar molecules: H H—IC—OH H‘“‘c¢O 'c= H—(lZ—OH H—CII—OH H—(lZ—OH il-I H c. enantiomers d. isotopes a. structural isomers b. geometric isomers 4. Identify the asymmetric carbon in this molecule: at it b d “Hi iii-i- H/ H H H H 5. Which functional group is not present in this molecule? HO\ #0 i i‘ H— ——C|3 (I:— OH MN H H/ H a. carboxyl b. sulfhydryl c. hydroxyl (1. amino 6. Which action could produce a carbonyl group? a. the replacement of the —OH of a carboxyl group with hydrogen b. the addition of a thiol to a hydroxyl c. the addition of a hydroxyl to a phosphate d. the replacement of the nitrogen of an amine with oxygen e. the addition of a sulfhydryl to a carboxyl 7. Which chemical group is most likely to be responsible for an organic molecule behaving as a base? a. hydroxyl d. amino b. carbonyl e. phosphate c. carboxyl For Self—Quiz isomers, see Appendle. w Visit the Study Area at www.masteringbio.com fora Practice Test. EVOLUTION CONNECTION 8. Some scientists believe that life elsewhere in the universe might be based on the element silicon, rather than on carbon, as on Earth. Look at the electron distribution dia— gram for silicon in Figure 2.9 and draw the Lewis clot struc— ture for silicon. What properties does silicon share with carbon that would make silicon—based life more likely than, say, neon-based life or aluminum-based life? SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY 9. In 1918, an epidemic of sleeping sickness caused an unusual rigid paralysis in some survivors, similar to symptoms of ad— vanced Parkinson's disease. Years later, L-dopa (below. left), a chemical used to treat Parkinson’s disease, was given to some of these patients, as dramatized in the movie Awakenings. L-dopa was remarkably eftective at eliminating the paralysis, at least temporarily. However, its enantiomer. rJ-dopa (right), was subsequently shown to have no effect at all, as is the case for Parkinson’s disease. L-dopa D-dopa Suggest a hypothesis to explain why, for both diseases, one enantiomer is effective and the other is not. ‘r SCIENCE. TECHNOLOGY. AND SOCIETY 10. Thalidomide achieved notoriety 50 years ago because of a wave of birth defects among children born to women who took thalidomide during pregnancy as a treatment for morning sickness. However, in 1998 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved this drug for the treatment of certain conditions associated with Hansen's disease (lep— rosy). In clinical trials, thalidomide also shows promise for use in treating patients suffering from AIDS, tuberculosis, and some types of cancer. Do you think approval of this drug is appropriate? If so, under what conditions? What cri— teria do you think the FDA should use in weighing a drug's benefits against its dangers? CHAPTER F0 u I Carbon and the Molecular Diversity ofLife 67 ...
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