16 nutrition nutrientsbw

16 nutrition nutrientsbw - I. Overview Heterotrophs...

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1 1 Nutrition BIO 181 2 I. Overview Heterotrophs must have outside source of organics food food: complex of organic and inorganic compounds source of: energy raw materials essential nutrients 3 I. Overview 5 components: 1. carbohydrates 2. lipids energy and raw materials 3. proteins 4. vitamins 5. minerals no energy obtained water -raw material, no energy } } 4 II. Energy cellular respiration of food releases energy by oxidation measurement of energy: gcal = c al or gram-calorie heat to raise 1 gram water 1 o C kcal = C al = 1000 gcal or kilocalorie heat to raise 1 liter water 1 o C food calorie 5 II. Energy energy needs: Basal Metabolic Rate plus activities 1. BMR = energy needs at rest kcal/day varies with body size, age, sex Roughly 1500 kcal/day 2. activities sedentary = 500 kcal/day moderate = 1000-1500 kcal/day heavy = 5000 kcal/day 6 III. Nutrients classes of nutrients: essential nutrient cannot be made in body, must be in diet macronutrient needed in >0.1 g (100 milligrams)/day carbohydrates, phosphorous, calcium micronutrient needed in <0.1 g/day vitamins, iron, zinc, iodine
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2 7 III. Nutrients A. carbohydrates simple and complex sugars 4 kcal/g energy source and storage stored as glycogen in animals starch in plants macronutrient 8 III. Nutrients B. lipids 95% neutral fats, 5% sterols and phospholipids 9 kcal/g energy source and storage; insulation storage in animals lightweight compared to carbohydrates • 2.25 X energy per gram • does not attract water macronutrient 9 III. Nutrients Importance of lipids in diet: linoleic acid is essential dissolve fat-soluble vitamins
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2011 for the course BIO 181 taught by Professor Milton during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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16 nutrition nutrientsbw - I. Overview Heterotrophs...

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