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ESPM-EEP%202010%20Lecture%206 - ESPM 104/EEP 115 Fall...

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Unformatted text preview: ESPM 104/EEP 115 Fall 2010: Lecture 6 1. Introduction to Genetics (this is background material http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Introduction_to_genetics a. Genetic code, DNA, RNA, exons (expressed) vs introns (intervening segments), proteins, regulation b. Genes, loci (one locus), alleles, frequencies in gene pool c. Genotypes, phenotypes, traits d. Homozygous, heterozygous, dominant, recessive e. Mutations, drift, and selection 2. More on Genetics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetics 3. Ploidy: diploid, haploid, polyploidy. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ploidy 4. Mendelian Genetics (our focus) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mendelian_inheritance. 5. Mendel’s Laws: (Mendel 1865) a. First law: random segregation of alleles during meiosis (in reproduction of diploid organisms: inheritance is random during gamete—sperm, ovum—formation). b. Second law: independent assortment of alleles (opposite is linkage of genes into gene complexes). c. Co ­dominant inheritance & demonstration of first law: i. cross between plants with white (ww) and red (rr) homozygotes to produce all pink (wr); ii. cross between to pinks (wr) to produce white (ww), pink (wr) and red (rr) in proportions 1:2:1. (how does this work?) d. Dominant inheritance and demonstration of first and second laws through Mendel’s experiments with peas: smooth round yellow peas (RRYY) crossed pollinated with wrinkly green peas (rryy)—allele R dominates w and allele Y dominates g. 6. A simple genetics model: Lethal Recessive Genes (SSG 1.7, p. 159 & Ex. 4, p. 160 ­162; also see SSG 2.5 Ex 5, p. 279 ­281). 7. Disruptive selection: SSG 2.5, Ex. 9, p. 289 ­291. 8. Building models using the Punnett Square method (also mating and parent off ­spring tables): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punnett_square. 9. Hardy ­Weinberg Principle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardy ­Weinberg_principle. 10. Deviations from Hardy ­Weingberg a. On going directional selection b. Drift in small populations (demographic stochasticity) c. Assortative mating vs. disassortative mating d. Mutations e. Spatial structure—Wahlund effect lowers expected levels of heterozygosity 11. Derivation of equation in Group Project 2A, SSG 2.9, p. 348. 12. Hastings (1997) Genetics, Chapt 3, p 41 ­54. ...
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