Molecular Evolution

Molecular Evolution - Molecular Evolution DNA is a sequence...

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Molecular Evolution 14/02/2008 18:26:00 DNA is a sequence of nucleotides Four bases Segments of 3 are called Codons o Each codon codes for a specific protein 64 different codons 20 amino acids Genetic code is highly redundant o Many amino acids have more than one codon . Not ambiguous o One amino acid per codon Changes in codons o Synonymous Results in the same amino acid o Non-Synonymous Wrong amino acid Nonsense mutation sends “STOP” Mutations Types o Synonymous (Silent) Codes for the same amino acid
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Non Synonymous Change to amino acid Often  deleterious Sometimes  neutral Occasionally  adaptive Categories o Point mutation Changing of a single nucleotide Most are non-synonymous Some can be nonsense mutations Few synonymous mutations 3 rd  position on a codon is highly variable o Insertion/Deletion Several nucleotides are inserted or left out o Inversion Same number and type of amino acids Improperly ordered Major duplications can occur Polyploidy in chromosomes Trisomy Nature o Neutral Most long term o Deleterious (Negative)
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course ECOL 182 taught by Professor Chesson during the Spring '08 term at Arizona.

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Molecular Evolution - Molecular Evolution DNA is a sequence...

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