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Chapter 15 The Solar System: Notes

Chapter 15 The Solar System: Notes - 1 Achondrites Do not...

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1. Achondrites – Do not have the chondrules as their name implies, but have a homogeneous texture more like volcanic rocks such as basalt that cooled from molten rock. 2. asteroids – Between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is a belt or circular region of thousands of small rocky bodies called asteroids. This belt contains thousands of asteroids that range in size from 1 km or less up to the largest asteroid. 3. astronomical unit – The distance from the earth to the Sun is known as one AU. One AU is about 1.5*10^8 km (9.3*10^7 mi). An AU is used to describe distances in the solar system. 4. chondrites – Stony meteorites subdivision. Small structure of spherical lumps of silicate minerals or glass. 5. Chondrules – small structure of minerals or glass called chondrules, held together by a fine grained cement. 6. Comet – relatively small, solid body of frozen water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and methane, along with dusty rocky bits of materials mixed in. It was Fred Whipple in the 1950's who proposed the dirty-snowball cometary model. Prior to this it was believed that comets were sand and gravel. 7. giant planets – Outside the orbit of Mars are four giant planets, which are similar in density and chemical composition. Giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are massive giants mostly composed of hydrogen, helium, and methane. The density suggests the presence of rocky materials and iron as a core surrounded by a deep layer of compressed gases beneath a deep atmosphere of vapors and gases. Terrestrial plants and Giant planets, in our solar system, are separated by the asteroid belt.
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