Chapter 19 Building Earth's Surface: Notes

Chapter 19 Building Earth's Surface: Notes - Chapter 19...

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Chapter 19 Building Earth's Surface: Notes 1. anticline – In general an arch-shaped folds is called an anticline. The most common region structures from deep plastic deformation are these arch-shaped and trough-shaped folds. Not always visible on earth's surface. Ridges of anticlines are constantly being weathered into sediments. 2. Earthquake – Quaking, shaking, vibrating, or upheaval of the ground. Results of sudden release of energy that comes from stress on rock beneath the earth's surface. When the rock does fracture the sudden movement of blocks of rock produces vibrations that move out a waves throughout the earth. Vibrations are called seismic waves. Most earthquakes occur along a fault plane. Occur near the earth's surface. Most are explained by the movement of rock blocks along faults, but there are also other causes. These earthquakes that do not occur along faults can be explained by deeply buried anticlines or other deeply buried structures. Also can be explained by the movement of magma that occurs beneath a volcano. They can also occur during a volcanic eruption. 3. elastic rebound – stressed rock now released of strain, snaps suddenly into new positions in the phenomenon known as elastic rebound. Rocks are displaced to new positions on either side of the fault and the vibrations from the sudden movement are felt as an earthquake. Tend to occur along short segments of the fault at different times rather than along long lengths. The resulting earthquake tends to be a localized phenomenon rather than a regional one. 4. fault – Relative movement between rocks on either side of a fracture the crack is called a fault. When faulting occurs rocks on one side move relative to the rocks on the other side along the surface of the fault which is described as a fault plane. Described in terms of (1) steepness of the fault plane, angle between the plane and an imaginary horizontal plane, and (2) direction of relative movement. Three ways rocks on one side of a fault can move relative to the rocks on the other side: (1) up and down (dip), (2) horizontally, or sideways (strike), and (3) with elements of both directions (oblique). 5.
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2011 for the course PSC 1121 taught by Professor Tulsian during the Spring '11 term at Daytona State College.

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Chapter 19 Building Earth's Surface: Notes - Chapter 19...

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