115C_1_ee115c_01

115C_1_ee115c_01 - A Brief History 1 A Bit of History The...

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1 A Brief History
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2 A Bit of History… The First Computer (1832) The Babbage Difference Engine 25,000 parts cost: £17,470
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3 ENIAC – The First Electronic Computer (1946)
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4 The Transistor Revolution (1948) First transistor Bell Labs (1948)
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5 The First Integrated Circuit (1958) 7/16" wide and containing two transistors, mounted on a bar of germanium (Image courtesy of Texas Instruments, Inc.) Texas Instruments (Sep 12, 1958)
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6 The First Integrated Circuits (1960’s) Bipolar logic (1960’s) ECL 3-input Gate Motorola (1966)
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7 Intel 4004 Microprocessor (1971) 2,300 transistors (12mm 2 ) 108 KHz operation (10 μ m)
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8 Evolution in Transistor Count
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9 After 30 Years of Scaling: Intel Pentium ® 4 Microprocessor Intel (2000) 42 M transistors (217mm 2 ) 1.5 GHz operation (0.18 μ m)
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10 A Top Level View at Technology Scaling… 42 M transistors 1.5 GHz operation 1971 2000 2,300 transistors 108 KHz operation ~15,000 x Comparison (automotive): Travel from Los Angeles to New York in 13 sec!
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11 Moore’s Law In 1965, Gordon Moore noted that the number of transistors on a chip doubled every 18 to 24 months He made a prediction that semiconductor industry will double its effectiveness every 18 months Implications Number of transistors Logic density Die size Frequency Power
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12 Moore’s Law 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 LOG 2 OF THE NUMBER OF COMPONENTS PER INTEGRATED FUNCTION Source: Electronics, April 19, 1965.
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13 4004 8008 8080 8085 8086 (P1) 286 (P2) 386 (P3) 486 (P4) Pentium® (P5) Pentium Pro (P6) 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Transistors (MT) 2X growth in 1.96 years! Source: S. Borkar (Intel) Pentium 4 Moore’s Law in Microprocessors: Number of Transistors Transistors on Lead Microprocessors double every 2 years
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14 Pentium (R) Pentium Pro (R) 486 386 i860 1 10 100 1000 1.5μ 1.0μ 0.8μ 0.6μ 0.35μ 0.25μ 0.18μ 0.13μ Logic Density 2x trend Logic Transistors/mm 2 Pentium II (R) Moore’s Law in Microprocessors: Logic Density Shrinks and compactions meet density goals New micro-architectures drop density Source: Intel
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15 Moore’s Law in Microprocessors: Die Size Growth 4004 8008 8080 8085 8086 286 386 486 Pentium ® Pentium Pro 1 10 100 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Die size (mm) ~7% growth per year ~2X growth in 10 years Source: S. Borkar (Intel) Die size grows by 14% to satisfy Moore’s Law
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16 Moore’s Law in Microprocessors: Process steps # of steps have increased But not the same exponential slope Cost is proportional to the # of steps.
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115C_1_ee115c_01 - A Brief History 1 A Bit of History The...

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