Anth 2050-test 1

Anth 2050-test 1 - A nthropology 2050 Test 1 read Falkan...

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Anthropology 2050 Test 1 *read Falkan book (pages on Moodle) 8/26/09 The Science of Archaeology -origins and legitimacy in intellectual curiosity (minimal practical application) -important goals with practical application What led to the contemporary world? Processes of social change Ways human organize society Help to shape the present -What do archaeologists want to learn? Knowledge about past societies from the Greek “archaiologia” Science of material systems o Systemic (living societies) vs. archaeological contexts (past societies who left material mental Three main objectives: o Reconstruct how people lived at a single time (synchronic perspective) o Reconstruct sequences of events (diachronic perspective), i.e. culture history o Combine synchronic and diachronic approaches to understand the PROCESSES of social change They support claims and hypotheses by empirical evidence We do not prove anything: only support evidence in order to distinguish what is probably from what is possible 8/28/09 -What constitutes archaeological evidence? -need those notes…. -Why is there anything left? Archaeological record formed by various factors -What’s the value of the archaeological record? Basic archaeological problem: gap between what we want to learn and the evidence available Some aspects of parts of past cultural behaviors are more difficult to reconstruct (e.g. religious beliefs) -Three main filters affecting archaeological record:
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Some things never enter the archaeological record Things that enter are incomplete What survives time is a fragment of the fragmentary record (taphonomic processes) - Four main categories of evidence: Artifacts: portable objects made/modified by humans Ecofacts: organic/environmental remains (inform us of the environment at the time) Features: immovable objects Sites: places where traces of human activities are found - How to explain change in archaeology? **(look up) Culture as “systems” Cultures are “processes” Innovation Diffusion Migration -Archaeological theory in a nutshell Unilinear vs. multilinear evolution Culture history Processual archaeology Postprocessual archaeology - What is the job of archaeologists? Understand the formation of archaeological record Use different tools and methods to retrieve information contained in the archaeological record (look up) Think about how we know what we know about the past (epistemology) And…have fun digging in remote areas of the world Archaeological Methods -How do we find archaeological sites? Surface evidence (most common technique): systematically walk across the landscape, aerial photographs, ask people, landscape features, etc.
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