Anth 2050-test 2

Anth 2050-test 2 - Archaeology 2050 Test 2 Notes 9/23/09...

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Archaeology 2050 Test 2 Notes 9/23/09 What is a modern human? 1. The term modern humans refers to all members of the subspecies homo sapiens sapiens- that includes all living humans 2. Modern human traits include: Globular braincase Reduce brow ridges Reduced boy mass Unique pelvic shape Vertical forehead Pronounced forehead Narrow trunk Reduced tooth size 3. Origins and spread of modern humans Multi regional model Evolution from H. erectus in several places Recent out of Africa model Sapiens developed in Africa in 200-100kya, radiated to other continents 4. Multiregional model Gene flow between geographically separated populations prevents speciation All living humans derive from the species Homo erectus that left Africa Natural selection in regional populations responsible for regional variants (races) Emergence of Homo sapiens not restricted to any one area, but was a wide spread phenomenon 5. Recent out of Africa model After homo erectus migration out of African different populations reproductively isolated Homo sapiens arose in one place, probably Africa Homo sapiens ultimately migrated out of Africa and replaced all other human populations, without interbreeding Modern human variation is relatively recent phenomenon Supported by molecular DNA evidence Supported by archaeological evidence Herto site, Ethiopia Modern humans at 160 kya Klasies River Mouth Caves, South Africa 6. Recent out of Africa model for homo sapiens sapiens ( chart thing) Africa- 160,000 BP Middle east- 100,000BP Southeast Asia - 60,000 BP Europe - 36, 000 BP Australia - 50,000 BP
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Central Asia - 33,000 BP 7. Mitochondrial DNA - passed through mothers side 8. Genetic evidence supporting recent out of Africa model Living humans are very much homogenous genetically Homogeneity contrasts with our living relatives (chimps) (greater genetic distance between chimps from same group that between humans from different populations) Highest degree of variation found in African populations (because more time to accumulate genetic diversity) Small founding populations ca 400-100 kya 9. Archaeological evidence supporting recent out of Africa model Differences between the archaeological records of modern humans in Africa and Neanderthals in Europe include: Greater variability is found in stone tools industries of Africa There are elaborate bone tools in Africa Clear evidence of fishing and collecting shellfish in Africa Artwork is present in Africa 10. Early modern humans in the middle east Humans first arrived in the middle east about 100 kya Humans did not expand beyond the middle east before 60 kya Neanderthals became extinct in the middle east around 40 kya Humans and Neanderthals may have co existed in the region for 60 kya 11. Upper Paleolithic Creative explosion: Mostly dated between 40-10 kya Europe, Asia , Africa and Australia
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course ANTH 2015 taught by Professor Sills during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Anth 2050-test 2 - Archaeology 2050 Test 2 Notes 9/23/09...

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