CH_1_OUTLINE - 0 Genetics: From Genes to Genomes 3rd and...

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Unformatted text preview: 0 Genetics: From Genes to Genomes 3rd and 4th Editions Hartwell ● Hood ● Goldberg ● Reynolds ● Silver Chapter 1 1 Genetics The Study of Biological Information 0 2 Chapter Outline 0 3 3 levels of biological information 3 levels of biological information 1. DNA macromolecule made of nucleic acids repository of the genetic code 2. Proteins macromolecules made of amino acids amino acid sequence determined by DNA sequence 3. Biological systems network of interactions between molecules or network groups of cells groups Accomplish coordinated functions 4 The biological information in DNA generates an enormous diversity of living organisms an 5 Information in DNA generates diversity 0 6 Genetic Information is Digital 0 7 There have been 265 post-conviction DNA exonerations in the United States to date. The first DNA exoneration took place in 1989. Exonerations have been won in 34 states; since 2000, there have been 198 exonerations. 17 of the 265 people exonerated through DNA served time on death row. The avg. length of time served by exonerees is 13 years. The average age of exonerees at the time of their wrongful convictions was 27. The true suspects and/or perpetrators have been identified in 116 of the DNA exoneration cases. 8 Genes are sequences of DNA that encode proteins 0 GENE: DNA region that encodes proteins EXON: coding region of DNA INTRON: non­coding region of DNA 9 DNA resides in within cells packaged as units called chromosomes 0 10 Chromosome pair 23 represents the SEX CHROMOSOMES 11 Chromosome pairs 1­22 are the AUTOSOMES 0 Biological function emerges primarily from proteins 0 Amino acids have a basic amino group (­NH) and an acidic carboxyl group (­COOH) Alanine has a relatively simple CH side chain Tyrosine has a more complex aromatic side chain 13 Proteins are polymers of amino acids 0 14 The diversity of protein structure generates extraordinary diversity 0 15 Proteins interact with DNA and other proteins 0 16 Evolution of biological information on Earth 0 17 All living things are closely related 0 18 All living organisms use essentially the same genetic code 0 19 Many genes have similar functions in very different organisms 0 Cytochrome C protein 20 Terminology we need to define Analogous structures: • • 0 Terminology we need to define Terminology we need to define Homologous structures: • • 0 EVOLUTION EVOLUTION CONVERGENT EVOLUTION: Example: 0 DIVERGENT EVOLUTION: EVOLUTION 0 Example: Relatedness among organisms is important for the study of human genes 0 25 Modular construction of genomes has allowed rapid evolution of complexity 0 26 The process of duplication and divergence 0 27 Duplication and divergence has made rapid evolution possible 0 28 Rapid change in regulatory networks specify how genes behave. 29 Genetic techniques permit the dissection of complexity 0 30 Genome sequencing projects are a step in understanding the complexity of genomes 0 Is there a direct relationship between genome size or the # of genes and evolutionary complexity? 31 ►►► 32 New technological tools facilitate the New dissection of genomes and integration of information of 0 • 33 Focus on human genetics 0 34 Genetics Predictive and Preventative Medicine 0 35 Social issues and genetics 0 36 ...
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