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ICAS 2000 CONGRESS 111.1 Abstract This paper will examine the prospects for propulsion systems for large civil transport aircraft over the next 2 decades, to the year 2020. This period is likely to see the market drivers for future propulsion system development change from the more traditional ones of fuel consumption and weight, to also include those that affect the impact of civil aviation on the environment, and the continuing pressure to reduce the cost of ownership of civil engines, namely, product unit cost, maintenance costs and reliability. 50 years of civil aero- engine development are reviewed and trends showing the likely limits to the main engine performance parameters are provided. The paper concludes with consideration of a number of new civil aircraft and engine concepts that may emerge in the next 20 years 1 Introduction The propulsion systems used on today’s civil transport aircraft represent the refinement of the principle of jet propulsion based on the gas turbine, first conceived by Whittle and Von Ohain nearly 70 years ago. In that period, propulsion system concepts have evolved through turbo-props, turbo-jets, low by-pass ratio (BPR) turbofans, to today’s high BPR 2- shaft and 3-shaft turbofans. Also, this period has seen remarkable progress in the performance and reliability of these propulsion systems. Aircraft are now three times more fuel-efficient than the early turbo-jet powered aircraft (see Fig.1), and roughly two-thirds of this improvement is due to the giant strides made in reducing engine fuel consumption. 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 ! 1000 nm mission ! Typical international and reserve rules ! 3 class seating (unless not typical) -% Engine Cruise Fuel Consumption Aircraft Fuel Burn per Seat Comet 4 SV10 SV10 B707-120 B707-120 B707-320B B707-320B B747-100 B747-100 DC10-30 DC10-30 B747-200B B747-200B B747-400 B747-400 B777-200 B777-200 A340-300 A340-300 A340-600 A3XX-100 Figure 1. Aircraft fuel burn Another key engine design criterion over the last 30 years has been noise, driven by the rapid expansion of airport usage at major city hubs and its impact on the local resident population. Here again, the engine industry has responded by producing design that are 75% quieter than the early turbo-jet powered aircraft (see Fig. 2). Noise levels corrected for aircraft thrust Entry Into Service 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 20dB Reduction in Noise 75%Quieter No Bypass Duct Low Bypass Ratio High Bypass Ratio Very High Bypass Ratio Figure 2. Aircraft Noise Another key development over the last 30 years has been the emergence of the long-range twin-engine civil transport, exemplified by the B767, B777, A300/310 and A330. This has led to the requirement for improved engine 2020 VISION: THE PROSPECTS FOR LARGE CIVIL AIRCRAFT PROPULSION Dr N T Birch, Advanced Propulsion System Design, Rolls-Royce plc, Derby, PO Box 31, Keywords : civil aircraft, propulsion, aero-engine
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N T Birch 111.2 reliability, to allow safe operation of these
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course AERO 101 taught by Professor Sohe during the Spring '11 term at Punjab Engineering College.

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