geography - 1 Globalization describes an ongoing process by...

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1. Globalization - describes an ongoing process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of communication and trade. Formerly distant regions and cultures are now increasingly linked through commerce, communications, and travel. Globalization is usually recognized as being driven by a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural, political, and biological factors. Examples: 1) The European colonization of the Americas. 2. Geopolitics - The study of the relationship among politics and geography, demography, and economics, especially with respect to the foreign policy of a nation. Geopolitical theorists have sought to demonstrate the importance in the determination of foreign policies of considerations such as the acquisition of natural boundaries, access to important sea routes, and the control of strategically important land areas. Examples: 1) The political status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip is one of the most violently disputed issues in the Arab-Israeli geopolitical conflict. 3. Cultural Relativism - the view that all beliefs, customs, and ethics are relative to the individual within his or her own social context. In other words, “right” and “wrong” are culture- specific; what is considered moral in one society may be considered immoral in another. Cultural relativism is the principle that an individual human's beliefs and activities should be understood in terms of his or her own culture. Examples: 1) If you were raised to believe that dogs were pets, yet in China, a dog is also food. 4. Historical Relativism - belief in uniqueness of historical periods: the theory that each period of history has its own unique beliefs and values and can only be understood in its historical context. 5. Ethnocentrism - the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own. The ethnocentric individual will judge other groups relative to their own particular ethnic group or culture, especially with concern to language, behavior, customs, and religion. These ethnic distinctions and sub-divisions serve to define each ethnicity's unique cultural identity.
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6. Regions (borders) – area of land that has geographic, political, or cultural characteristics that distinguish it from others, whether existing within one country or extending over several. A geographic region is a spatial stereotype for a section of Earth that has some special signature or characteristic that sets it apart from other places. Examples: 1) Sometimes the unifying threads of a region are physical, such as climate and vegetation, resulting in a regional designation like the Sahara Desert or the Amazonian rain forest. Other times the threads are more complex, combining economic and cultural traits, as in the use of the term Corn Belt for parts of the central United States. 6
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geography - 1 Globalization describes an ongoing process by...

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