- describes an ongoing process by which regional economies, societies, and
cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of communication and trade.
Formerly distant regions and cultures are now increasingly linked through commerce,
communications, and travel. Globalization is usually recognized as being driven by a
combination of economic, technological, sociocultural, political, and biological factors.
Examples: 1) The European colonization of the Americas.
- The study of the relationship among politics and geography, demography, and
economics, especially with respect to the foreign policy of a nation. Geopolitical theorists have
sought to demonstrate the importance in the determination of foreign policies of considerations
such as the acquisition of natural boundaries, access to important sea routes, and the control of
strategically important land areas.
Examples: 1) The political status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip is one of the most violently
disputed issues in the Arab-Israeli geopolitical conflict.
- the view that all beliefs, customs, and ethics are relative to the
individual within his or her own social context. In other words, “right” and “wrong” are culture-
specific; what is considered moral in one society may be considered immoral in another. Cultural
relativism is the principle that an individual human's beliefs and activities should be understood
in terms of his or her own culture.
Examples: 1) If you were raised to believe that dogs were pets, yet in China, a dog is also food.
- belief in uniqueness of historical periods: the theory that each period
of history has its own unique beliefs and values and can only be understood in its historical
- the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally
important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own. The ethnocentric
individual will judge other groups relative to their own particular ethnic group or culture,
especially with concern to language, behavior, customs, and religion. These ethnic distinctions
and sub-divisions serve to define each ethnicity's unique cultural identity.