BIO 101 Fall2010 Exam#1 Review

BIO 101 Fall2010 - General Biology 101 Fall 2010 Dr Morrison Learning Objectives for Lecture Exam I Required Reading in Biology Concepts and

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General Biology 101/ Fall 2010/ Dr. Morrison Learning Objectives for Lecture Exam I Required Reading in Biology: Concepts and Connections (SIXTH edition) by Campbell et al. Animal Form and Function (Parts of Chapters 20, 21 and 25) 1. Give examples of how structure fits function in the animal body, especially how form fits function in chemical exchanges between animals and their environments (20.13). 2. Compare and contrast the specialized structures used for food processing (ingestion, digestion, absorption and elinmination) in hydra, worms, grasshoppers, birds and mammals (21.2 and 21.3, Lab Guide Minicourse 1) Hydra Worms Grasshoppers Birds Mammals Ingestion mouth mouth mouth mouth mouth Digestion gastrovascular cavity intestine (crop, gizzard) midgut intestine (crop, stomach, gizzard) small intestine (stomach) Absorption gastrovascular cavity intestine midgut, hindgut intestine small intestine Elinmination mouth anus anus anus anus 3. Contrast the three forms of nitrogenous waste excreted by animals -- ammonia, urea, and uric acid -- in terms of their toxicity, solubility and chemical composition. Cite the advantages and disadvantages of excreting each (25.5). Nitrogenous Waste Toxicity Solubility Chemical Composition Ammonia toxic highly soluble in water NH 3 Urea less toxic highly soluble in water Uric acid less toxic largely soluble in water Advantages of excreting: Amomonia too toxic to be stored in the body Urea relatively lillte water loss Uric acid avoid the water loss problem almost compeletly Disadvantage of ecreting: animal must use energy to produce these compounds from ammonia Uric acid animal must expend more energy to excrete uric acid than urea Objectives for GB 101 Exam I -- Page 1
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4. Trace the processing of filtrate through the nephron of a human kidney, including the glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, descending and ascending portions of the loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and the collecting duct (25.6). Describe each structure’s role in filtration, reabsorption, secretion or excretion (25.7 and 25.8). Glomerulus make up the blood filtering unit of the nephron filtration Bowman’s capsule Proximal tubule secretion of excess drugs, poisions, and H + reabsorption of water, salt, nutrients, and HCO 3 - Loop of Henle carry filtrate toward medulla and then back to cortex reabsorption of water and salt Distal tubule drain into collecting duct secretion of excess K + , H + reabsorption of water, salt, and HCO 3 - Collecting duct receive filtrate from many nephorns reabsorption of water, salt, and urea 5. Explain the effects on urine production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), ethyl alcohol and caffeine (Lecture). ADH
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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BIO 101 Fall2010 - General Biology 101 Fall 2010 Dr Morrison Learning Objectives for Lecture Exam I Required Reading in Biology Concepts and

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