2 Atmosphere and Air Pollution

2 Atmosphere and Air Pollution - ENGG1006 - Engineering for...

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1 ENGG1006 - Engineering for Sustainable Development ATMOSPHERE AND AIR POLLUTION ATMOSPHERE AND AIR POLLUTION Office: Rm. 6-30, Haking Wong Building Phone: 2859-1973 E-mail: [email protected] Dr. Kaimin Shih DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG PROGRESS & OUTCOMES PROGRESS & OUTCOMES
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2 Atmospheric Environment • Absorbs cosmic rays & (some) meteorites •A l l o w sun radiation only in the range of 300-2500 nm for photosynthesis. Prevent harmful UV , and temperature fluctuation by IR . Protect us from hostile environment…
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3 The source of • Carbon dioxide ( CO 2 ) for plant photosynthesis • Oxygen ( O 2 ) for respiration • Nitrogen ( N 2 ) for life molecules Nurture life on the Earth Atmospheric Composition O 2 : 20.95% N 2 : 78.08% CO 2 : 0.035% Ar : 0.934% Ne : 1.818 10 -3 %, Kr : 1.14 10 -4 %, He : 5.24 10 -4 %, Xe : 8.7 10 -6 %, trace gases Major Minor
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4 Stratified reactions in the atmosphere Surface reflecting (radiating) heat Absorption of UV (200-330nm) by O 3 : O 3 + hv = O 2 + O No radiation- absorbing species Highly rarified gas (O) absorbs very energetic (<200nm) light N 2 , O 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O, . .. O 2 + , NO + O 3 [O] >> [O 2 ], O 2 + , O + , NO + Short term variations in the state of the atmosphere are described as " Weather Weather ", and defined by 7 major factors: - Temperature - Precipitation - Clouds - Atmospheric pressure - Winds - Humidity - Horizontal visibility Longer term variations defined by above same factors are described as " Climate Climate ". Weather and Climate
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5 Air Mass Movement [DRY] -10 o C ----- km Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate [WET] -6 o C ----- km Moist Adiabatic Lapse Rate Air Current ( by temperature ) Wind ( by pressure ) Scale Global Regional (Microclimate !?) Scale of Study
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6 •A local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area r e a : As small as a few square feet (for example a garden bed) or as large as many square miles (for example a valley). A particularly marked effect is the induction by urbanization •F a c t o r examples : - North- or south-facing slopes - Urban or rural areas - Vegetation type and density - Height (topography) Microclimate Agriculture in " The Lost City of Incas" (Machu Picchu, Peru. EL. 2350 m) For example, monsoons in India, Africa, South America, North America,. .. In India, from May to August, monsoon rains fall in India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Climate is a function of " Region " and " Time “. Himalayan Mt. NS Cold & Dry (July, India) Hot Moisture Moisture from Ocean
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7 “Atmospheric Activities”: One of the most important influence on earth's environment and its development 2009 Typhoon “Morakot” (August 08 landed in Taiwan) Mission for Future Engineers Mission for Future Engineers - Scientific analysis and accurate prediction of environmental systems to safeguard our sustainable development ! Air Quality
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8 SMOG = Smoke + Fog Smog is a problem in a number of cities and continues to harm human health.
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course ENGG 1006 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '11 term at HKU.

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2 Atmosphere and Air Pollution - ENGG1006 - Engineering for...

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