3 Sustainable Water Environment

3 Sustainable Water Environment - ENGG1006 -Engineering for...

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Unformatted text preview: ENGG1006 -Engineering for Sustainable Development SUSTAINABLE WATER ENVIRONMENT SUSTAINABLE WATER ENVIRONMENT Office: Rm.6-30, HakingWong Building ! Phone: 2859-1973 ! E-mail: kshih@hku.hk Dr. Kaimin Shih DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITYOF HONG KONG PROGRESS & OUTCOMES PROGRESS & OUTCOMES Keeping sustainable water resources is to…. Provide sustainable supply of water quantity . Protect and restore the water quality . “Water”-The Earth's Most Important Resource “Provide Access to Clean Water ” within The GrandChallengesfor Engineering in The 21st Century (5/14) U.S. National Academy of Engineering Feb. 15, 2008 •Limited Water Resource Water is so common that we take it for granted •Safe Drinking Water Over 1 billion people (1/6) lack access to safe drinking water worldwide •Appropriate Wastewater Discharge Historically discarded in the cheapest method possible Major Problems of Water Environment Water Resources Engineering precipitation Water Cycle Components 1. Storage in ice and snow : freshwater stored in the frozen form, usually in glaciers, icefields and snowfields. 2. Precipitation : discharge of water, in the form of rain or snow, from atmosphere. 3. Snowmelt runoff to streams : movement of water as surface runoff from snow or ice to the nearest stream channels. 4. Infiltration : downward movement of water from the land surface into soil and porous rock. 5. Ground water discharge : movement of water out of ground. 6. Ground water storage : water exist for a period below the earth land surface. 7. Water storage in ocean : saline water stored in ocean or inland sea. 8. Evaporation : liquid to gas 9. Condensation : gas to liquid 10. Evapotranspiration: The process by which water is discharged to the atmosphere as a result of evaporation from soil and transpiration by plants. 11. Water storage in atmosphere : water stored in atmosphere in as vapor, such as clouds and humidity. 12. Surface runoff : precipitation runoff which travels over the soil surface to thenearest stream channels. 13. Stream flow : water movement in a channel on land surface, such as river. 14. Springs : a place where concentrated discharge of groundwater flows at the ground surface. 15. Freshwater storage : freshwater stored on the Earth surface, such as lake or reservoirs. 16. Sublimation : from solid phase to gas phase. Global Water Distribution 2.5% " 0.3% = 0.0075% ! 12900 m 3 /c.a (1970), 9000 m 3 /c.a (1990), 7000 m 3 /c.a (2000), 5100 m 3 /c.a ( 2025 ). 5100 m 3 /c.a would be enough to meet individual human needs, if it distributes equally among the world's population. 1 2 3 The annual precipitation in Hong Kong is about 2169 mm . (More recent time, such as canals) E n g i n e e r i n g f o r D e v e l o p m e n t : A q u e d u c t E n g i n e e r i n g f o r D e v e l o p m e n t : A q u e d u c t “Aqueduct”is a water supply channel (conduit) constructed to convey water. S p r i n g W a t e r City A 50 km aqueduct in the South of France.A 50 km aqueduct in the South of France....
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3 Sustainable Water Environment - ENGG1006 -Engineering for...

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