Enzymes and Energetics

Enzymes and Energetics - Enzymes and Energetics Chapter 6...

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Enzymes and Energetics Chapter 6
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Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism In living organisms, thousands of enzyme catalyzed reactions occur Catalysis occurs due to the 3-D shape of the proteins involved Metabolism is the combination of all of these reactions
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Chemical Reactions Metabolism : sum total of all chemical reactions in an organism Anabolic reactions : complex molecules are made from simple molecules; energy input is required. Catabolic reactions : complex molecules are broken down to simpler ones and energy is released.
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Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamics Bioenergetics is the flow of energy in biochemical systems Energy is defined as the capacity to do work Forms of Energy: Heat, light, electrical, and chemical
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Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamics Kinetic energy is the energy associated with motion Potential energy is the energy of state or position
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Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamics Energy before and after transformation is equal After energy transformation. The amount of energy available to do work is less.
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Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics : Energy is neither created nor destroyed. Second Law of Thermodynamics : When energy is converted from one form to another, some of that energy becomes unavailable to do work. • With repeated energy transformations usable energy decreases and unusable energy increases
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Energy ΔG = ΔH- TΔS Enthalpy (H): Total Energy of the System Entropy (S): Amount of disorder in the System Free Energy (G): Amount of Useable Energy Temperature(T): Temperature in Kelvins
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Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamics Change in free energy (ΔG) in a reaction is the difference in free energy of the products and the reactants Reactions spontaneously go from high levels of useful energy (G) to low level of useful energy G tends to decrease. S tends to increase. H is constant, but the quality changes All things tend towards disorder
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Free Energy ΔG = ΔH – TΔS If ΔG is negative, free energy is released. If ΔG is positive, free energy is consumed.
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Energy Transformations Exergonic reaction – Energy is released as the reaction proceeds to form products – Spontaneous reaction Endergonic reaction – Energy is needed to start the reaction – Non-spontaneous reaction
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An exergonic reaction releases free energy ( G is negative), allowing the system to reach a state of lower free energy. The reaction occurs spontaneously . An endergonic reaction requires input of energy ( G is positive). Chemical Reactions Release or Take Up Energy
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Exergonic Reaction Energy is released as the reaction proceeds to form products. Products have less free energy than the reactants. ΔG is negative
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Endergonic Reaction Non-spontaneous reaction Needs energy G reactant < G product. ΔG is positive
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In principle, chemical reactions can run in both directions. Chemical equilibrium
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Enzymes and Energetics - Enzymes and Energetics Chapter 6...

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