{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

finalpaperdraft - Yanting Wang TA Perri Gerard-Little Final...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Yanting Wang TA: Perri Gerard-Little Final Paper December 8, 2010 Historical and Sociological Analysis of the Medicalization of Childbirth. Childbirth has always been seen as a social event, where people gather with comfort, skills and knowledge to offer. The event’s meaning and significance are socially constructed; throughout history, people have developed ways to understand birth and change its meaning and methods. Because of this understanding, childbirth can be seen as a creative act, a biological phenomenon and a social event. The act of birth not only reflects the widely held values of individual women, but also mirrors and reinforces our social order. One of the major criticisms today is the medicalization and consumerization of birth in America. Critiques of the medicalization of birth are many and varied. They stem from midwifery, feminist, and social theory. The goal of this paper is to look at various transformations of childbirth in American culture in a historical context: the transformation from the bedroom or kitchen, a place with family and friends, to the hospital, a place with hired workers and machines; the transformation from and experience that gambles with pain and death to an experience in which women can choose to be pain free; the transformation in which the midwife is replaced by the obstetric specialist as the designated person who stands before the expectant mother with technical aids; finally, a shift in the technical aids themselves, from natural oils to the synthetic epidural anesthesia. The paper strives to look at the cultural and historical reasons for the continued development of biomedical birth as well as the waxing and waning of the midwifery movement.
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Before understanding these transformations one must analyze them through their historical context. The history of childbirth, according to Nancy Schom Dye’s (1980) article “History of childbirth in America,” can be broken down into three different eras. Before the eighteenth century, childbirth was seen as a social event and an exclusively female affair, rather than a medical event . During that period, birth was facilitated by midwives and attended by friends and family. Midwives were viewed as very empirically knowledgeable about the birthing process and some enjoyed a high social status. Childbirth then was not romanticized, but instead carried terrifying associations. It was a time of confusion and fear that is complemented with pain and sometimes, even death. Atul Gawande (2006) notes that for thousands of years, childbirth was the most common cause of death for women and infants. These causes include hemorrhage, torn placenta, or uterine rupture. The second period, from the 18 th century to the early 20 th century, represented a transition from social birth to medical birth, where male physicians replaced female midwives. Women began see birth as a medical science, turning to physicians for care. T The emergence of new technical aids that made birth safer paralleled the transition to physicians. Atul Gawande (2006) emphasizes the revolutionary effect on birth the invention of forceps had. Although forceps were
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern