GraybielARN - Annu Rev Neurosci 2008.31:359-387 Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by Cornell University on For personal use only ANNUAL

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Habits, Rituals, and the Evaluative Brain Ann M. Graybiel Department of Brain and Cognitive Science and the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139; email: [email protected] Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2008. 31:359–87 The Annual Review of Neuroscience is online at neuro.annualreviews.org This article’s doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.29.051605.112851 Copyright c ± 2008 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 0147-006X/08/0721-0359$20.00 Key Words striatum, reinforcement learning, stereotypy, procedural learning, addiction, automatization, obsessive-compulsive disorder Abstract Scientists in many different fields have been attracted to the study of habits because of the power habits have over behavior and because they invoke a dichotomy between the conscious, voluntary control over be- havior, considered the essence of higher-order deliberative behavioral control, and lower-order behavioral control that is scarcely available to consciousness. A broad spectrum of behavioral routines and rituals can become habitual and stereotyped through learning. Others have a strong innate basis. Repetitive behaviors can also appear as cardinal symptoms in a broad range of neurological and neuropsychiatric illness and in addictive states. This review suggests that many of these behav- iors could emerge as a result of experience-dependent plasticity in basal ganglia–based circuits that can influence not only overt behaviors but also cognitive activity. Culturally based rituals may reflect privileged interactions between the basal ganglia and cortically based circuits that influence social, emotional, and action functions of the brain. 359 Click here for quick links to Annual Reviews content online, including: • Other articles in this volume • Top cited articles • Top downloaded articles • Our comprehensive search Further ANNUAL REVIEWS Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2008.31:359-387. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by Cornell University on 08/21/10. For personal use only.
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Contents INTRODUCTION. ................. 360 DEFINITIONS OF HABIT LEARNING IN COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE AND EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. 362 COMPUTATIONAL APPROACHES TO HABIT LEARNING: HABIT LEARNING AND VALUE FUNCTIONS. ........... 365 EXTREME HABITS. ................ 369 LEARNING HABITS AND LEARNING PROCEDURES. .... 370 HABITS, RITUALS, AND FIXED-ACTION PATTERNS. ... 371 STEREOTYPIES. ................... 372 HABITS, STEREOTYPIES, AND RITUALISTIC BEHAVIORS IN HUMANS. ...... 374 HABITS AND RITUALS: THE BASAL GANGLIA AS A COMMON THEME. .......... 375 Habit is the most effective teacher of all things . —Pliny We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit. —Aristotle Habit is second nature, or rather, ten times nature. —William James For in truth habit is a violent and treacherous schoolmistress. She establishes in us, little by little, stealthily, the foothold of her authority; but hav- ing by this mild and humble beginning settled and planted it with the help of time, she soon uncovers to us a furious and tyrannical face against which we no longer have the liberty of even raising our eyes.
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2011 for the course BIONB 4230 taught by Professor Finlay,b.l. during the Fall '10 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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GraybielARN - Annu Rev Neurosci 2008.31:359-387 Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by Cornell University on For personal use only ANNUAL

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