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10-18-10 History Notes - H istory 123 Notes Nationalism in...

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10/18/10 History 123 Notes Nationalism in Europe Nationalism is a movement that connected people to a land or a place and they are bound by a shared religion, history, culture, language, etc as well. Nationalism works with these factors to help people live peacefully in one country. ITALY Italy was divided into many lands/states. There was no clear indication of if they would ever be unified or if they would only be partially unified, if they became unified at all. There was no prediction of how Italy would be unified either or whether it would be a republic or monarchy. There was only 1 certainty and that was: Anyone who tried to unify Italy would meet resistance from: o The Pope (who would not want to lose the Papal states) o Austria (who had control of the states in Northern Italy) The kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia decided they would try and unify Italy. Piedmont realized they would face opposition from Austria and the Pope so they decided to go after the Austrian lands first. Piedmont needed an ally so Camillo Cavour (Prime Minister of Piedmont) went to France in 1858 and met with Napoleon III and they met a secret agreement:
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o If Austria was to attack Piedmont first and be the aggressor, France would come into the war on Piedmont’s side. o France would also approach Britain and Russia to ask them to stay out of the war if anything happened and they agreed. o Prussia never replied to the request for neutrality which had the French worried. To provoke Austria to attack, Piedmont raised up its army in April 1859. Austria sent a declaration to Piedmont demanding them to stand down within 3 days or they were declaring war. A war broke out between Piedmont and Austria and just as promised, France came in to help on Piedmont’s side. Because France was worried about Prussia coming into the war and siding with Austria the war only lasted 6 months and was over by July 1859. They signed a treaty saying that one of Austria’s Italian states would be given to Piedmont.
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