11-3-10 History Notes

11-3-10 History Notes - History 123 Notes Decolonization...

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11/3/2010 History 123 Notes Decolonization INDIA As the countries around India gained their independence it was called decolonization. At the turn of the 20 th century the British empire was strong. Nationalism was also on the rise in all countries and colonies. Not just nationalism was on the rise though, many colonies favored the British democracy and people wanted to see independence in India and model their government after Great Britain. During WWI, while Britain was at war, India was also at war. India could have taken Britain’s distraction to their advantage but they stayed loyal and supported the British. The people of India believed that if they stayed loyal and supported Britain they would be rewarded their independence after WWI was over. Instead the Rowlatt Act 1918 was established as an attempt for the British to control India: There were 4 parts to the Rowlatt Act: o 1. Censor all Indian press and writing. o 2. Declared Assembly of 3 or more Indians was illegal. o 3. Suspects could be incarcerated indefinitely without trial. o 4. Certain court cases could be tried without a jury. There were exceptions of people who weren’t enforcing the Rowlatt Act, one in specific, Reginald Dyer who was a colonial official. In April of 1919, thousands of men, women and children met to PEACEFULLY protest the Rowlatt Act in Amritsar. They gathered in a small park and when Dyer found out he brought troops and without giving a warning, ordered the troops to open fire.
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In the 10 minutes of shooting: 1650 rounds of live ammunition were fired into the crowd, 400 people were murdered and 12 were injured. A required dusk to dawn curfew was enforced and the devastation as a result of the shootings was not discovered until the curfew was lifted. This event is known as the Amritsar Massacre. No Indian newspapers could report on the massacre and the British papers did not report the incident either. This divided India into two, Pre-Amritsar and Post-Amritsar. The United States reported on the incident and was more sympathetic to the
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2011 for the course HIST 123 taught by Professor Carney during the Fall '10 term at Ohio University- Athens.

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11-3-10 History Notes - History 123 Notes Decolonization...

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