Bio311DLectures4and5 - From a population to a lineage As...

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From a population to a lineage:
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As lineages split, the two descendant lineages evolve independently
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As lineages continue to split, a phylogenetic tree emerges
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What does a phylogenetic tree represent? A phylogenetic tree shows the evolutionary relationships among biological lineages. These lineages may be individuals, genes, populations, or species.
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What does a phylogenetic tree represent? A phylogenetic tree shows the evolutionary relationships among biological lineages. These lineages may be individuals, genes, populations, or species. Almost everything we study in biology (e.g., genes, individual organisms, populations, species) are connected through an evolutionary history. To make biology predictive, we must account for these connections.
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Darwin’s notebooks contain the sketch (left, from 1837) that was the basis for the only figure in The Origin of Species (below, 1859), a conceptual drawing of a phylogenetic tree
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0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Number of papers published per year Year Phylogeny papers, 1978-2008, in the scientific literature Source: ISI Web of Science Genomics revolu4on led to rapid increase in data and to applica4ons of evolu4on, beginning in early 1990s
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A phylogenetic tree shows relationships among lineages, and when they last shared an ancestor
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Branches can be rotated around the nodes without changing the meaning of the tree
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Clades Represent All the Descendants of a Common Ancestor
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Phylogenetic trees are based on the distribution of homologous characters
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Eight Vertebrates and the Presence or Absence of Some Shared Derived Traits
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Inferring a Phylogenetic Tree
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Apply the Concept: Build a phylogenetic tree from these data
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Apply the Concept: Build a phylogenetic tree from these data Which tree(s) best fit(s) the data?
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What are appropriate data for phylogenetic analysis? Assumptions of characters : 1. Heritable (genetically determined) 2. Genetically independent Examples : •Nucleotide positions in a gene (A,G,C, or T) •Amino acid positions in a protein •Presence vs. absence of particular genes •Presence vs. absence or form of many morphological traits (if variation is not a result of environment) •Presence vs. absence or form of some behavioral traits (if genetic rather than learned)
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