Bio311DLectures2and3 - Applications of Evolution:...

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Unformatted text preview: Applications of Evolution: Understanding Influenza Epidemics Evolutionary Analysis of Surface Proteins Leads to Improved Flu Vaccines Charles Darwin and The Origin of Species Charles Darwin and The Origin of Species The Origin of Species (1859) Three big ideas, with lots of supporting detail 1. Life evolves (not original with Darwin) 2. All life is related through common descent 3. Major mechanism: Natural selection (differential survival and reproduction of individuals in a population based on variation in their traits) HMS Beagle The Voyage of the Beagle Darwin and the Voyage of the Beagle: the Galápagos Islands San Cristobal Santiago Santa Cruz Galápagos Islands Fernandina Isabela Tortuga Santa Fe Espanola Santa Maria Genovesa Marchena Pinta Animal adaptations: Leaf-mimicry in insects Animal adaptations: Camouflage in swallowtail pupae Milestones in the Development of Evolutionary Theory Darwin’s notebooks contain the sketch (left, from 1837) that was the basis for the only figure in The Origin of Species (below, 1859), a conceptual drawing of a phylogenetic tree Darwin inspired Haeckel (1866) to construct trees for major lineages of life (and to coin the word “phylogeny”) What is evolution? A. Changes in an organism over its life B. Changes in the genome of an organism C. Changes in the genetic makeup of a population over time D. Any biological change E. All of the above A Gene Pool Many Vegetables from One Species Artificial Selection Selection Reveals Genetic Variation Selection is Not the Only Way Populations Evolve: Genetic Drift via A Population Bottleneck Natural Selection is Not the Only Mechanism of Evolution: What Is the Advantage? Why does the male long-tailed widowbird have such a long tail? A. Because female widowbirds prefer males with long tails B. Because males with long tails are better fliers, and therefore survive better C. Because males with long tails are better at escaping predation D. Because males with long tails are better at defending their territories E. None of the above Sexual Selection in Action (Part 1) Sexual Selection in Action (Part 2) Thinking About the Mechanisms of Evolution: Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium •Specifies the conditions necessary for no evolution to occur •Provides a way to predict approximate genotype frequencies from allele frequencies under random mating Calculating Allele and Genotype Frequencies Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Under the conditions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, if the frequency of allele A = p , and the frequency of allele a = q , then after just one generation of random mating: Genotypes: AA Aa aa Genotype freq: p 2 2 pq q 2 One Generation of Random Mating Restores Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium What are the assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?...
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2011 for the course BIO 311D taught by Professor Reichler during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Bio311DLectures2and3 - Applications of Evolution:...

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