Literature on anxiety stress and coping

Literature on anxiety stress and coping - Psychology...

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Psychology: Literature on anxiety, stress and coping Reading number 10: Why having control reduces stress: if I can stop the roller coaster, I don’t want to get off Suzanne m Miller How can we account for the fact that having control seems to reduce the stress generated by an aversive event? Definitions of controllability: The first type of controllability refers to an instrumental training space (Seligman) individual is able to make a response that modifies the aversive event. Can either be active or passive and can escape, avoid or mitigate the impact of the stimulus. (Individual without control receives the same physical stimulus but has no control to the response in modifying the event. Perceived instrumental control: contingencies are arranged so that the individual believes that control rests with him or her. However it is actually the experimenter controlling the aversive event. Second type of control Self-administration: The individual is allowed to deliver the aversive event to themselves. The individual cannot change the aspects of the situation (receive same stimulus). . So it is the same as perceive instrumental control. The group with control has more controllability and predictability. In the case of instrumental control and self-administration, group with control has both more controllability and predictability than the group without control. Because timing is better for controlling group. If you avoid a shock, you both control it and know it will not occur. In self administration paradigm, when you deliver a shock to your self (you know when it is coming and control it) Miller and grant: concludes that there are conditions under which predictable aversive events are less stressful than unpredictable events. Having control makes he aversive event more predictable. The group with the controlling response perceives more predictability. Actual control equated for predictability: Potential control: induces individual to believe that some controlling response is available to them but they refrain from using it. Rather, they expect that if needed, they will be able to execute control sometime in the future. Anticipates more future control and predictability
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Social pressure is brought to bear on the individuals refraining them from using the button (glass and singer). Operationalizaiton for stress : 1) Choice between a controllable and uncontrollable event. 2) Anticipatory arousal, whether or not individuals are more anxious and aroused while waiting for a controllable as opposed to an uncontrollable event. Anticipatory arousal can be assessed psychological via electrodermal and cardiososovacular measures. 3) Impact arousal, weather or not a controllable aversive even actually hurts less. Can be asses physiologically, subjectively and behaviorally. Predictability hypothesis of control
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This note was uploaded on 02/12/2011 for the course PSYCH V89.0030 taught by Professor Andersen,s during the Spring '10 term at NYU.

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Literature on anxiety stress and coping - Psychology...

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