Judgments on History and Historians

Judgments on History and Historians - Judgments on History...

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Judgments on History and Historians
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JACOB BURCKHARDT Judgments on History and Historians Translated by Harry Zohn WITH A FOREWORD BY ALBERTO R. COLL LIBERTY FUND Indianapolis
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This book is published by Liberty Fund, Inc., a foundation established to encourage study of the ideal of a society of free and responsible individuals. The cuneiform inscription that serves as our logo and as the design motif for our endpapers is the earliest-known written appearance of the word “freedom” ( amagi ), or “liberty.” It is taken from a clay document written about 2300 b.c. in the Sumerian city-state of Lagash. q 1999 by Liberty Fund, Inc. All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Originally published in 1958 by Beacon Press Frontispiece: Jacob Burckhardt, courtesy of Corbis-Bettmann. Used by permission. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Burckhardt, Jacob, 1818 1897 . [Historische Fragmente. English] Judgments on history and historians / Jacob Burckhardt; translated by Harry Zohn; with a foreword by Alberto Coll. p. cm. Originally published: Boston: Beacon Press, 1958 . With new foreword. isbn 0-86597-206-0 (alk. paper).— isbn 0-86597-207-9 (pbk.: alk. paper) 1 . History—Philosophy. 2 . World history. 3 . Historiography. I. Title. d16.8.b813 1999 907 8 .2 —dc 21 98-17504 0 30 20 10 09 9c54321 0 9p54321 Liberty Fund, Inc. 8335 Allison Pointe Trail, Suite 300 Indianapolis, IN 46250-1687
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vii Contents Foreword, xvii Translator’s Preface, xxiii I. Antiquity 1 . Ancient History and Its Scope, 1 2 . On the Intellectual Indispensability of Studying Ancient History, 2 3 . The Limits of Civilization and Barbarism, 4 4 . Why Today’s “Educated Man” Can No Longer Understand Antiquity, 5 5 . The Historical Significance of Egypt, 7 6 . The Phoenicians as the Earliest Creators of po ´leic ( Polis ), 8 7 . On Carthage, 9 8 . Athens, 10 9 . Rome and Its Mission in World History, 11 10 . On the Roman Empire in Its First Two Centuries, 16
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viii contents II. The Middle Ages 11 . On the Middle Ages, 26 12 . On Early Christianity, 34 13 . Christianity as a Martyr Religion, 37 14 . On Asceticism and Its Position, 38 15 . The Spread of Nicene Christianity, 40 16 . The Church, 41 17 . Julian and the Prospect for a Restoration of Paganism, 44 18 . Western European Arianism and the Jews, 45 19 . The Breakup of the Western Empire, 46 20 . The Achievement of Clovis I, 47 21 . Mohammed as the Founder of a Religion, and Islam, 48 22 . The Despotism of Islam, 52 23 . Islam and Its Effects, 53 24 . The Two Main Realities for the Papacy of the Eighth Century, 54 25 . Charlemagne, 55 26 . The Normans, 57 27 . The Byzantine Empire and Its Mission, 58 28 . On the Iconoclastic Controversy, 59 29 . On the Crusades, 62
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contents ix 30 . The Sorrows and Sacrifices of the Crusades, 64 31 . On the Evaluation of the Later Middle Ages, 64 III. History from 1450 to 1598 32 . The Period from 1450 to 1598 and the Nineteenth Century’s View of It, 66 33 . England in the Late Middle Ages, 79 34 . On Richard III, 80 35 . On the Wars of the Roses and on Scotland, 83 36 . Burgundy, 85 37 . Charles the Bold of Burgundy, 85 38 . France and the Idea of Unification, 86 39 . Louis XI, 87 40 . The German Imperial Power Under Frederick III, 88 41 . The Ottomans, 89 42 . The Republic of Florence, 90 43 . On the War of
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