Chapter 8 - The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance

Chapter 8 - The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance

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Unformatted text preview: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance Chapter 8 Cell Division and Reproduction • Reproduction is one phase of an organism's life cycle • Two types of reproduction – Asexual and Sexual • Cell division is at the heart of organismal reproduction Mechanisms of Cell Division Prokaryotes – Binary fission Eukaryotes – Mitosis – Meiosis Binary fission Continued elongation of the cell and movement of copies Duplication of chromosome and separation of copies Plasma membrane Cell wall Prokaryotic chromosome Division into two daughter cells Prokaryotic chromosomes Roles of Mitosis • Growth • Cell replacement and tissue repair • Asexual reproduction – some protists, fungi, plants, animals Role of Meiosis • Sexual reproduction only • precedes the formation of gametes (sex cells) Chromosome • A DNA molecule associated with proteins (histones) • Duplicated in preparation for cell division Chromosome Number • Sum total of chromosomes in a cell • Somatic cells – Chromosome number is diploid (2 n ) - Two of each type of chromosome • Gametes – Chromosome number is haploid ( n ) - One of each chromosome type Mitosis & Chromosome Number • Mitosis produces diploid cells Sister Chromatids • Each chromosome and its copy • Attached at centromere • remain attached until late in nuclear division process Centromere Chromosome duplication Sister chromatids Chromosome distribution to daughter cells LE 8-4b Sister chromatids Centromere T E M 3 6 , 6 × Cell Cycle...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2011 for the course BIO 1100 taught by Professor Woods during the Spring '07 term at Troy.

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Chapter 8 - The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance

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