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Chapter 10 - Molecular Biology of the Gene

Chapter 10 - Molecular Biology of the Gene - Molecular...

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Molecular Biology of the Gene Chapter 10
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Structure of the Hereditary Material Experiments in the 1950s showed that DNA is the hereditary material Scientists raced to determine the structure of DNA 1953 - Watson and Crick proposed that DNA is a double helix
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Structure of Nucleotides Each nucleotide consists of Sugar Phosphate group A nitrogen-containing base
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Nucleotide Bases sugar (deoxyribose) adenine A base with a double-ring structure guanine (G) base with a double-ring structure cytosine (C) base with a single-ring structure thymine (T) base with a single-ring structure
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DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides DNA and RNA are identical except for Nitrogenous bases DNA: A, C, G, T RNA: A, G, C, U Sugars DNA: deoxyribose RNA: ribose
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DNA is a double- stranded Helix Strands run in opposite directions Sugar-phosphate backbones are on the outside and bases on the inside Strands held together by hydrogen bonds between bases (A - T, and C - G)
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LE 10-3c Twist
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LE 10-3d Hydrogen bond Base pair Ribbon model Partial chemical structure Computer model G C T A A T T A C C G G G C T T T T A A A A G C A T A C T G C G A T
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Patterns of Base Pairing
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DNA Structure Helps Explain How It Duplicates DNA strands separate Each single strand then serves as template for new strand DNA replication is semi-conservative Each new double helix consists of one old and one new strand
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DNA Structure Helps Explain How It Duplicates Parental molecule of DNA Both parental strands serve as templates Two identical daughter molecules of DNA T Nucleotides C G A G C A A T T A A A A C C C T T G G A C A A A A A A C C C C G T G T T T T G T T T G G
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Enzymes in Replication DNA polymerase attaches nucleotides and repairs mistakes on new strands DNA ligase fills in gaps
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