Unformatted text preview: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following elements is diatomic in its natural state? 1) _______ A) non s ulfur e bromine D) carbon E) iron 2) Many of the macroscopic properties of a compound depend on ________. 2) _______ A) h of t othe h w e mo lec n t ule u hs e are hel a d t tog oeth m er s mber of nucleons present in the sample how the atoms absorb light and the shape of the orbitals D) the mass of the E) constituent atoms the size of the sample 3) The concept of a chemical bond is ________. 3) _______ A) h m t sharing oore h of w e nucleons ato ms t are w hel od tog oeth r er how much energy it D) takes to remove an electron from a set of atoms how two or more E) electrons reside in an orbital none of the above 4) What is the valence shell? 4) _______ A) I st It l of t par is electrons tial t in i ly h element s fill e V ed s (atomic t orb h no. = hital el 23) e in an l ato a m. It is the outermost shell of electrons in an atom. D) It is the same as the E) orbital configuration. It is the shell of 5) electrons in an atom that is the least reactive. Which of the following statements is true? 5) _______ A) NT ect oron h t s in e the v a val al l enc e l e she oll f are val t enc he e ele ctr e ons l . nce shell is usually the most unreactiv e shell. The electron dot D) structure is made up of each of the valence shells. The valence shell E) always gives us the electron dot structure. none of the above 6) Which of the following statements is true? 6) _______ A) N A electrons ctr oons in the ll nare o valence bnot f shell are ofou t valence nnd h electrons. din e i the nval genc e e she l ll. e The valence electrons are only from s and p orbitals in the valence shell. D) The valence electrons are always paired in the valence shell. E) Paired valence electrons are more unstable than unpaired valence electrons. 7) Which of the following is the correct electron dot structure for chlorine (atomic no. = 17)? 7) _______ A) a B) b C) c D) d E) e Which of the following is the correct electron dot structure for carbon (atomic no. = 6)? 8) _______ A) a B) b C) c D) d E) e Which of the following has the greatest number of nonbonding pairs of electrons ? 9) _______ A) S B) C C) He D) F E) H 10) How many valence electrons does boron (B, atomic no. = 5) have? 10) ______ A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5 11) How many valence electrons does gallium (Ga, atomic no. = 31) have? 11) ______ A) 3 B) 6 C) 70 D) 31 E) 1 12) How many valence electrons does bromine (Br, atomic no. = 35) have? 12) ______ A) 28 B) 7 C) 1 D) 35 E) 2 1 13) Which of the following elements has six valence electrons? 13) ______ A) C B) N C) B D) O E) B e 14) Which of the following elements has two valence electrons? 14) ______ A) H B) Mg C) Ne D) Na E) L i 15) What is one role of unpaired valance electrons? 15) ______ A) Tt in T ovide h the h the e for e number y mati y of on p Lewis t of r dots. a diff k eren e t type p s of a bon r ds. They keep the paired electrons separated to minimize interaction. D) They are the E) nonbonding electrons. They tell us which 16) Lewis dot structure is correct. How do the electron-dot structures of elements in the same group in the periodic table compare with one another? 16) ______ A) Tr by E the h exac l same e tly e group two m have the s elec e same t tron n number r s t of u bet s valence c wee o electron t n f s. u verti r call e y s cons ecut d ive i ele f men f ts. e The number of D) electrons in the electron-dot-structure will equal the group number for each element of the group. The number of valence shell electrons increases by one for each element from the top to the bottom of the group. 17) How many more electrons can fit within the valence shell of a hydrogen atom? 17) ______ A) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D) 7 18) The valence electron of a sodium atom does not sense the full +11 of the sodium nucleus. Why not? 18) ______ A) S nly T us to the i arou h loosely n nd e held c the d lone e entir i valence e s electron t sphe t varies h rical a greatly e surf n over ace c time. + e So, the of 1 the f average 1 nucl r sense of eus, o charge c the m from the h actu t nucleus a al h is r forc e consider g e of n ably e the u less char c than i ge l +11. s in e any s give p n r dire e ctio a n is d grea tly e dimi v nish e ed. There are two inner D) shells of electrons containing ten electrons shielding the sodium nucleus from sensing it. There are two "non 19) valence shell" electrons shielding the sodium nucleus from sensing it. How is the number of unpaired valence electrons in an atom related to the number of bonds that the atom can form? 19) ______ A) Tvale T aired h nce h valence e elec e electron tron n s in an n s in u atom is u an m one-half mato b the b m is e number e twic r of r e o bonds the f that the o num u atom f ber n can of p form. u bon n ds p that a the i ato r m e can d for m. There is no defined D) relationship between the number of unpaired valence electrons and number of bonds that the atom can form. The number of unpaired valence electrons in an atom is the same as the number of bonds that the atom can form. 20) The neon atom tends NOT to gain any additional electrons because 20) ______ A) t e i h roo t e m s r avai n e labl u e in i its s oute rmo n st o occ upie md o shel r l. clear charge is not great enough. of the repulsions they would experience with electrons in the same shell. D) that would result in a 21) positive ion. The neon atom tends NOT to lose any electrons because 21) ______ A) i s are ould t t pair h result in s ed a a toge t negative e ther w ion. l with e in c the t sam r e o orbi n tals. of its relatively strong effective nuclear charge. D) the ionization energy is so high. 22) If an element has a +1 positive charge and the following chemical symbol, how many electrons does it have? O 22) ______ A) 1 8 7 17 D) 5 E) none of the above 23) If an element has a -1 negative charge and the following chemical symbol, how many electrons does it have? F 23) ______ A) 20 B) 8 C) 11 D) 10 E) 9 24) Which of the following is NOT an ion? 24) ______ A) Br- N O3- H+1 D) O2 E) Mg+2 25) Which of the following is an ion? 25) ______ A) Br2 H Cl 2 H2 D) Au + 3 Br2 E) none of the above 26) If a neutral atom loses one electron, what is the electrical charge of the atom? 26) ______ A) + 2 n eutral -1 D) +1 E) -2 27) If a neutral atom gains two electrons, what is the electrical charge of the atom? 27) ______ A) n utral 1 e +2 D) +1 E) -2 28) What needs to be done to convert a neutral nitrogen atom into an N-3 species? 28) ______ A) r thre r ove e e e three melec m protons o tron v s e add three protons D) add three electrons E) add three nitrogens 29) Which of the following is a positive ion? 29) ______ A) Na+2 N a+1 Na+ D) Na+3 E) all of the above 30) Which of the following is a negative ion? 30) ______ A) Na+1 N a+3 Na-2 D) Na E) all of the above 31) Which of the following would be a negative ion with a single charge? 31) ______ A) a ith a with 10 n 12 n protons prot a and 12 a ons t electron t and o s o 11 m melec tron ws an atom with 11 protons and 11 electrons D) an atom with 11 protons and 12 electrons E) none of the above 32) Which of the following would be an ion with a double positive charge? 32) ______ A) a om a tom that n that n gains lose M one M g electron s g two a elec a tron t s an Mg atom that gains two electrons D) an Mg atom that loses one electron E) none of the above 33) Which of the following elements will most likely form an ion with a +1 charge? 33) ______ A) Mg B) Si C) Cl D) Na E) A l 34) Which of the following elements will most likely form an ion with a +2 charge? 34) ______ A) Na B) Si C) Cl D) Mg E) N e 35) Which of the following elements will most likely form an ion with a -2 charge? 35) ______ A) Ne B) Mg C) S D) Na E) C l 36) Which of the following elements will most likely form an ion with a -1 charge? 36) ______ A) Ne B) S C) Cl D) Mg E) N a 37) Which of the following elements will most likely not form an ion at all? 37) ______ A) Na B) Br C) O D) Ar E) M g 38) What is the name for the following polyatomic ion? PO4-3 38) ______ A) p phor p osphate h us h o oxid s e potassium D) trioxo phosphoride E) phosphinate 39) What is the name for the following polyatomic ion? CH3CO2-1 39) ______ A) a etat c rboxylic c e a monocarboxylate D) acetic E) acidic 40) If carbonic acid (H2CO3) were to undergo ionization, what would one of the products be? 40) ______ A) C3-1 H O CO2 D) H2O E) CO3-2 41) How is it possible for a neutral molecule, such as water, to form an ion? 41) ______ A) I elec It ne with t tron c a c s a hydroge a and n n ion to n bec c form a ome o positivel a neg m y b ativ b charged s ely i species. o char r ged. b It can fragment into D) protons and electrons. It can combine with a chloride ion to form a negatively charged species. E) It can absorb electrons and become positively charged. 42) An atom loses an electron to another atom. Is this an example of a physical or chemical change? 42) ______ A) p e p h invo h y lvin y s g s i the i c for c a mati a l on c of h neg a ativ n e g ions l change involvin g the formati on of positive ions chemical change D) involving the formation of positive ions chemical change 43) involving the formation of negative ions Why is it so easy for a magnesium atom to lose two electrons? 43) ______ A) T elec T ar h tron h charge ee of the elec n magnesi r e tron u um repu c atoms is a lsio l relativel r ns e y weak. e that go l on o with t in s the vale o nce f shel l. These two electrons are found relatively far from the nucleus. D) These two electrons are well shielded from the nuclear charge. 44) Why doesn't the sodium atom gain seven electrons so that its third shell becomes the filled outermost shell? 44) ______ A) I diff S ear t icult o charge wfor d is not o anot i strong u her u enough l ato m to hold d m to 's that lose n many b seve u more e n c electron elec l s. t tron o s. o In gaining seven more electrons, sodium's fourth outer shell becomes filled. D) Only six additional 45) electrons are required to fill the outermost shell of sodium. Take money away from your bank account and the bank will show a negative credit. Take an electron away from an atom, however, and the atom shows up positive. Explain. 45) ______ A) Atron E ative. t s. l Therefo o Hav e re, we ming c know s an tr from ato o basic a m n math r "sho s that e w a subtract up r ing a c posi e negative o tive a (number n " is lr ) from a s only e neutral t an a (atom), a expr d will n essi y make t on n the l indi e result y cati g positive. ng e that x it c has h take a n its n turn g in i the n gam g e of elec e tron l exc e han c ge. Removing an electron from an atom does not have the atom show up positive. It simply leaves the atom short one electron. D) Neutral atoms contain oppositely signed protons and electrons. Removing one of the negative electrons results in an excess of identically charged but positively charged protons. 46) Why does an atom with many valence electrons tend to gain electrons rather than lose any? 46) ______ A) Aave A ons tend t relat t to have o ivel o relativel my m y strong s wea s forces k w of wforc it attractio i es h n t of m between h attra a the ctio n valence mn y electron a bet v s and n wee a the y n l nucleus. the e This v vale n makes it a nce c easy for l elec e them to e tron e gain n s l addition c and e al e the c electron nucl tr s. e eus. l The e refo c re, t the r oute o r n elec s tron s are t free e to n attra d ct othe t r o elec tron h s. The old adage that "he true in atomic structure. Atoms with many valence electrons can essentially overpower atoms with few who has, gets" is also valence electrons and attract additional electrons. D) There is stability in 47) numbers. Atoms with many valence electrons are always attracting new electrons. What molecule loses a proton to form the hydroxide ion, OH⁻? 47) ______ A) Tgen T oxygen h pero h molecul e xide e e, mol h ecul y e, d r o The hydrogen molecule, D) The water molecule, 48) O Which should be larger, the potassium atom, K, or the potassium ion, K⁺? 48) ______ A) Ttom, T um ion, h K, h K⁺ is e with e larger an p since p addi o chargin o tion t g an t al a atom a shel s always s l of s makes it s elec i larger. i tron u s is mlarg er. a The potassium atom D) and the potassium ion are exactly the same size and only differ in charge. The potassium ion, K⁺ is larger since it has an extra electron which increases its size. 49) If the following generic atom were to undergo ionization, what would be the charge of most likely product? 49) ______ A) 8 - 3 -5 D) +3 E) would probably not 50) ionize If the following generic atom were to undergo ionization, what would be the charge of the most likely product? 50) ______ A) + 6 + 2 -6 D) -2 E) would probably not 51) ionize If the following generic atom were to undergo ionization, what would the most likely product be? 51) ______ A) - 3 + 4 -2 D) +1 E) would probably not 52) ionize Which of the following molecules contains an ionic bond? 52) ______ A) Cl2 P O4-3 SF3 D) MgCl2 E) none of the above 53) Which of the following best describes ionic bonding? 53) ______ A) t s w ments wshar h with o ing e same a set n charge a of t are held t elec w together o tron o by ms e electrost l atic e forces one atom giving up D) some of its electrons to another atom two atoms exchanging a set of electrons E) none of the above 54) How many chloride ions (Cl-1) are needed to balance the positive charge of a barium ion (Ba+2)? 54) ______ A) 3 B) 2 C) -1 D) -2 E) 1 55) How many oxide ions (O-2) are needed to balance the positive charge of a titanium ion (Ti+4)? 55) ______ A) 2 B) 6 C) 3 D) 1 E) 4 56) If you mix a typical iodine ion (I, atomic no. = 53) with a typical barium ion (Ba, atomic no. = 56), what compound is formed? 56) ______ A) Ba2I2 B a2I BaI D) Ba56I53 E) BaI2 57) If you mix a typical aluminum ion (Al, atomic no. = 13) with a typical oxygen ion (O, atomic no. = 8), what compound is formed? 57) ______ A) A2O2 A l3O2 l Al2O3 D) Al13O8 E) Al3O 58) What is the compound that forms if you react potassium and sulfur? 58) ______ A) SkP B) KS C) K2S D) PS2 E) S P 59) Which of the following does not describe ionic compounds? 59) ______ A) Tre T held h usua h together e lly e by y very y electrost orde a atic a red. r attractio e n. They have a tendency to melt easily. D) They consist of positive and negative ions. E) none of the above 60) Which of the following substances contains ions? 60) ______ A) D) E) all of the above 61) Which of the following compounds contains ionic bonds? 61) ______ A) O D) E) none of the above 62) crystals are composed of 62) ______ A) g f u molecul r n es held o ions it together u and s by p o dipole s mol f interacti ecul ons. o es. units composed of six D) Mg atoms and six molecules. a two-dimensional array of [-Mg-Cl-Cl-] units. E) a multitude of 63) ions and ions grouped together in a three-dimensional array with a 1:2 ratio of to . Magnesium ions carry a 2+ charge, and chloride ions carry a 1- charge. What is the chemical formula for the ionic compound magnesium chloride? 63) ______ A) MgCl B) Mg C) Cl D) 64) Barium ions carry a 2+ charge, and nitrogen ions carry a 3charge. What would be the chemical formula for the ionic compound barium nitride? 64) ______ A) B) C) D) 65) Is an ionic compound an example of a chemical compound, or is a chemical compound an example of an ionic compound? 65) ______ A) Ampo A ompoun n und n d is an is an example i c exa o of a h mpl n chemica e e of i l ma c compou i ioni c nd. c c a com l pou c nd. o Each is an example of the other. D) Neither is an example 66) of the other. Which would you expect to have a higher melting point: sodium chloride, NaCl, or aluminum oxide, ? 66) ______ A) N mel T xide has a ting h a higher Cpoin e melting l t a point h beca l because a use u of the s it is m covalent a i bonds a soli n within d at u the h roo m molecul i m e. g tem o h pera e ture. r The aluminum oxide point because of the greater charges of the ions, and hence the greater force of attractions between them. has a higher melting D) The aluminum oxide 67) has a higher melting point because it is a larger molecule and has a greater number of molecular interactions. Which are closer together: the two nuclei within potassium fluoride, KF, or the two nuclei within molecular fluorine, ? 67) ______ A) KF Both are the same. Any atom bonded to F will have the same inter-nuclear separation. D) It makes little sense to compare two molecules which exist in different physical states. KF is a solid while 68) is a gas. Which would you expect to have a higher melting point: sodium chloride, NaCl, or cesium chloride, CsCl? Why? 68) ______ A) Tighe T as a h r h higher e melt e melting ing c point s poin e because o t s larger d beca i ions of i use u the u its m same mions charge are c are able c sma h to h ller, l attract l whi o more o ch ri ions of r allo d the i ws e opposite d opp h charge. e osit ely h char a ged s ions to a get clos h er. The sodium chloride point because of the greater charges of the ions, and hence the greater force of attractions between them. has a higher melting D) The cesium chloride has a higher melting point because its ions are smaller, which makes the charges more dense. 69) Why are the melting temperatures of most ionic compounds far greater than the melting temperatures of most covalent compounds? 69) ______ A) Cds o are v not a as l stro e ng n as t ioni b c o bon n ds. M mpound o s have s at least t one c weak o bond in v their a structur l e that is e easily n broken t when c heat is o added. As a solid, salts have a very organized crystalline structure which takes a lot of energy to break apart. D) Ionic bonds are so much stronger than the molecular attractions between covalently bonded compounds. 70) Which of the following is not a property of metal? 70) ______ A) d not c ducts o con o electrici e duct n ty s heat well is strong, but can be D) bent is shiny E) All of the above are 71) properties of metals. Which of the following describes the reason for the following application of metals? long wires acting to carry power 71) ______ A) a shi d t r ny o conduct e n heat o well conduct electricity D) are strong but can be E) bent C and D 72) Which of the following describes the reason for the following application of metals? structural supports for buildings 72) ______ A) c uct a re shiny o elec n trici d ty do not conduct heat D) well are strong but can be E) bent C and D 73) Which of the following describes the reason for the following application of metals? designer jewelry 73) ______ A) d t c duct o con o electrici duct n ty n heat o well are shiny D) are strong but can be E) bent C and D 74) Which of the following describes the reason for the following application of metals? the fenders of a car 74) ______ A) d t a re shiny o con duct n heat o well are strong but can be bent D) conduct electricity E) C and D 75) What property of metal atoms account for many of the observed bulk phenomena seen in metal samples? 75) ______ A) M adil M s readily e y e form t for t ionic a m a bonds. l cov l s alen t r bon e ds. Metal atoms easily lose one or more outer electrons. D) Metal atoms easily gain one or more outer electrons. E) none of the above 76) Why is metal shiny? 76) ______ A) Ttron T ctrons h s h transmit e abso e most rb e wavelen e each l gths of l light e light. e wav c e. The loose electrons D) reflect most wavelengths of light. The electrons emit light due to electronic excitation. E) all of the above 77) Which of the following describes how a metal atoms feels in a bulk metallic object? 77) ______ A) T sha T tom h res h shares e its e its elec m electron mtron e s in a e s t very t with a directio a only l nal l one a manner. a othe t r o ato mm. The metal ion shares its outermost electrons freely with its neighbors. D) The metal atoms have limited interaction with neighboring atoms. E) none of the above 78) What property of alloys make them ideal for developing new materials? 78) ______ A) Tof T e atoms h the h involve e mat e d is erial s directly c cha i related h nge z the a dep e electrica r endi o l a ng f conducti c on t vity. t how h e muc r h of i each s com t pon i ent c is s pres ent. Alloys are very rigid and are extremely resistant to chemical decomposition. D) all of the above E) none of the above 79) How are most metals found in nature? 79) ______ A) a onic a ovalent s com s compou pou c nds i nds as native metals D) as free ions E) all of the above 80) If the concentratio n of gold in seawater is 2.0 milligram per ton of sea water and the mass of the ocean is 1.5 × 1018 tons, how much gold is in the ocean? 80) ______ A) 3 0 kg 3 6 mg . 300 g D) 3,000 lb E) 3.0 × 1012 kg 81) There is more gold in 1 km3 of the ocean than the amount of gold mined in all of recorded history. How come we do not mine the oceans? 81) ______ A) I too It uld cost t dilut w too i e to o much. s sepa rate. It would take too much energy. D) all of the above E) none of the above 82) What it the main difference between an ionic and a covalent bond? 82) ______ A) Olectr T s are n ons, h traded e the e between othe e the two i r l atoms n does e and this v not c keeps o invo tr the l lve o atoms v any n close. e elec s tron s. e The electrons in both types of bonding undergo an exchange. D) Both bonds are the E) same, but named different to describe different atoms involved. One is the sharing of a pair of electrons, the other is the transfer of at least one electron. 83) What is a molecule? 83) ______ A) a tom p f shared s a valence g that ir electron r are o s o held u toge p ther by o ioni f c bon a ds pair of atoms sharing a set of valence electrons D) a group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds E) group of covalent 84) compounds held together by ionic bonds What does the line in the following example actually represent? HH 84) ______ A) a ed a ovalent pair c bond s of h elec a tron r s a pair of nonbonding electrons D) an ionic bond E) A and B 85) How many covalent bonds would the following atom usually form? 85) ______ A) 5 1 3 D) 2 E) would usually not form any covalent bonds 86) How many covalent bonds would the following generic atom usually form? 86) ______ A) 2 4 8 D) 1 E) would usually not form any covalent bonds 87) How many covalent bonds would the following atom usually form? 87) ______ A) 6 1 4 D) 2 E) would not form any 88) bonds How many nonbonding pairs of electrons are in the following molecule? HH 88) ______ A) 0 pair 6 pairs s 8 pairs D) 1 pair E) none of the above 89) Which of the following statements is untrue? 89) ______ A) Cecul C bonds o es o can v usua v involve a lly a more l hav l than one e e e pair of n low n electron t melt t s. ming o poin l ts. Covalent molecules can have nonbonding electrons. D) Covalent molecules are never crystalline. E) All of the above 90) statements are true. Which of the following is a covalent compound composed of nonpolar covalent bonds? 90) ______ A) O B) NaF C) D) E) 91) Which of the following molecules has two pairs of nonbonding electrons on the central atom? 91) ______ A) O D) S E) C and D 92) Many analogies can be drawn between chemical bonds and human relationships . For example, which is more analogous to marriage: the ionic bond or the covalent bond? Which is more analogous to the single life? 92) ______ A) mvale m ge=ioni a nt a c bond; r bon r single= r d; ri covalent i sing a bond a le= g cov e alen = t c bon o d marriage=ionic bond; single=ionic bond D) marriage=covalent 93) bond; single=ionic bond A hydrogen atom does not form more than one covalent bond because it 93) ______ A) h y l a one o s elec s tron e o to s n shar l e. its valence electron so readily. has only one shell of electrons. D) has such a strong 94) electronegativity. What drives an atom to form a covalent bond: its nuclear charge or the need to have a filled outer shell? 94) ______ A) i to it nuclear t hav s charge s e a fille n d e oute e r d shel l both D) neither 95) Classify the following bonds as ionic, covalent, or neither (O, atomic number 8; F, atomic number 9; Na, atomic number 11; Cl, atomic number 17; U, atomic number 92). O with F Ca with Cl Na with Na 95) ______ A) neither, ionic, covalent B) covalent , ionic, c ovalent covalent, ionic, neither D) ionic, 9 covalent, n either 6) Atoms of nonmetallic elements form covalent bonds, but they can also form ionic bonds. How is this possible? 96) ______ A) Te of A results h the n when a i bon i nonmeta s ded o llic non n element h met i s gains a allic c an p ele b electron p men o from a e ts n metallic n has d element. s a stro wng h elec e tron n egat ivity o . n It happens when one of the nonmetallic elements loses an electron to become a positive ion. D) An ionic bond results 97) when a nonmetallic elements loses an electron to a metallic element. Atoms of metallic elements can form ionic bonds, but they are not very good at forming covalent bonds. Why? 97) ______ A) Te T s are too h shel h large to e ls e be able i are s to come r alre e in close ady a contact v fille t with a d o other l with m atoms. e elec n tron c s. They have a great D) tendency to lose electrons. They are on the wrong side of the periodic table. 98) Phosphine is a covalent compound of phosphorus, P, and hydrogen, H. What is its chemical formula? 98) ______ A) PH B) C) P D) P 99) How many electrons are used to draw the electrondot structure for calcium chloride, an ionic compound with the formula 99) ______ A) 8 B) 16 C) 4 D) 6 0) How many electrons are used to draw the electrondot structure for ethane, a covalent compound with the formula 100) _____ A) 16 B) 8 C) 20 D) 14 1) How many electrons are used to draw the electrondot structure for hydrogen peroxide, a covalent compound with the formula 101) _____ A) 14 B) 7 C) 4 D) 8 2) How many electrons are used to draw the electrondot structure for acetylene, a covalent compound with the formula, 102) _____ A) 5 B) 12 C) 8 D) 10 3) Which of the following molecules contains a polar bond? 103) _____ A) C l-Cl F -F H-F D) H-H E) all of the above 104) Which of the following molecules would contain a dipole? 104) _____ A) F -F H -F Cl-Cl D) H-H E) all of the above 105) Which of the following statements best describes a relatively polar bond? 105) _____ A) t electr t electro wonega w negati o tive o ve atoms atoms w v are e underg e coval a o ionic r ently k bondin y boun l g d y a very electronegative atom and a weakly electronegative atom are covalently bound D) two very E) electronegative atoms undergo ionic bonding none of the above 106) Which of the following bonds would be the most polar? 106) _____ A) C -Cl C -I C-Br D) C-F E) All are equally polar. 107) Which of the following bonds would be the least polar? 107) _____ A) C -Cl C -F C-O D) C-H E) All are equally polar. 108) Which of the following molecules would be ionic? 108) _____ A) C S2 S F5 CaCl2 D) CF4 E) SO2 109) Which of the following compounds has polar covalent bonds? 109) _____ A) CH4 B) CO2 C) CsF2 D) S8 E) N e 110 ) In terms of the periodic table, is there an abrupt or gradual change between ionic and covalent bonds? 110) _____ A) T abru Wrms h pt h one or e chang e the r e that t other e occur h depend s e s on i acros r nuclea s s the a r a metal n charge n loids. e and l not the e relativ m e e positio n ns in t the f periodi o c table. There is a gradual D) change: the farther apart, the more ionic. Actually, any element 111) of the periodic table can form a covalent bond. Which of the following molecules is polar? 111) _____ A) a b c D) All are polar. E) Only A and C are polar. 112) Which of the above substances would have the lowest boiling point? 112) _____ A) a b c D) All boil at the same E) temperature. All are gases. 113) Which of the above substances would have the largest dipole? 113) _____ A) a b c D) Each has the same size dipole. E) None of the molecules has a dipole. 114) Two molecules, A and B, have very different physical properties. A and B do not mix. Molecule A boils at 80°C and freezes at -30°C. Molecule B boils at 35°C and freezes at -100°C. Which molecule is the least polar? 114) _____ A) mlecule lecule m o A o B Not enough information is given. D) Both are equally polar. E) Molecule A and B are 115) the same, but with different properties. Two molecules, A and B, have very different physical properties. A and B do not mix. Molecule A boils at 80°C and freezes at -30°C. Molecule B boils at 35°C and freezes at -100°C. Which molecule is likely to have the largest dipole? 115) _____ A) mlecule lecule m o A o B Not enough information was given. D) Both have similar E) dipoles. Molecule A and B are 116) the same, but with different properties. Which of the following molecules has the highest boiling point? 116) _____ A) NH3 B H3 CH4 D) SH2 E) All of the above have 117) the same boiling point. Which of the following statements does not describe a polar molecule? 117) _____ A) T in the P s have h mole o the e cule l weake are a st e distri r interm l buted m olecula e evenl o r c y l interac t throu e tions r ghout c with o the u ionic n mole l compo s cule. e unds. The molecules are D) usually not attracted to one another very strongly. The molecules have a high degree of symmetry. E) None of these 118) statements describe polar molecules. Sort the following atoms in order of increasing electronegati vity. 118) _____ A) F , Ga, C Ga, Y, , P, Y, s O, P, F OCs , F, O, Cs, Y, Ga, P D) Cs, F, Ga, O, P, Y E) Cs, Y, Ga, P, O, F 119) Does an ionic bond have a dipole? 119) _____ A) Ns are Y onic o only e bond , found s is an d in , examp i coval t le of a p ent h very o comp e strong l ounds i dipole. e . Yes, but for ionic D) compounds they are referred to as monopoles. No, but the electrical 120) charges are relatively strong. The source of an atom's electronegati vity is the 120) _____ A) e tive k nergy f nucle i electro f ar n ns e charg e have c e. t orbitin i g the c nucleu e s. repulsive force D) occurring among electrons within the same shell. repulsive force 121) occurring between electrons within neighboring shells. Which bond is most polar? 121) _____ A) C-C B) N-C C) O-H D) H- N 2) Which molecule is most polar? 122) _____ A) OC=S S =C=S = O=C=O D) These all have the same polarity. 123) Which of the following molecules is the most polar? 123) _____ A) B) HCl C) CO D) Br F 4) List the following bonds in order of increasing polarity: 124) _____ A) N-N < N-O < N-F < H-F B) N-N < N-O < H-F < NF - H-F < N-F < N-O < N-N D) N-O < N-N < N-F < 1 HF 25) Which is more polar, a sulfurbromine (SBr) bond or a seleniumchlorine (SeCl) bond? 125) _____ A) A bond A bond shoul should s d be s be e more u more l polar l polar e becau f becaus n se of u e of a i a r greater u great - differe mer b nce in - differ r effecti c ence o ve h in m nuclea l effect i r o ive n charge r nucle e . i ar n charg e e. A sulfur-bromine bond should be more polar because of a smaller difference in effective nuclear charge. D) A selenium-chlorine 126) bond should be more polar because of a smaller difference in effective nuclear charge. Water, O, and methane, C , have about the same mass and differ by only one type of atom. Why is the boiling point of water so much higher than that of methane? 126) _____ A) T fferen T lecule h ce h is less e betwe e symme en w trical e oxyg a than is l en t the e and e metha c hydro r ne t gen is m molec r great o ule. o er n than e the g electr a onega t tivity i differ v ence i betwe t en y carbo n and d hydro i gen. The oxygen of a water molecule has two lone pairs of electrons. D) all of the above 127) An individual carbonoxygen bond is polar. Yet carbon dioxide, C , which has two carbonoxygen bonds, is nonpolar because 127) _____ A) t cule t -pulls h has h of the e an e two even e oxyge mnumb l n o er of e atoms l electr c are e ons. t equal r and o opposi n te. it has a greater D) symmetry. Two of the above are 128) reasonable. A substance consisting of which molecule shown below should have a higher boiling point? 128) _____ A) T on T n the h the h right, e left, e CO m Cl, m , o becaus o becau l e of l se it e electro e has a c negati c fewer u vity u numb l consid l er of e eration e atoms o s. . The molecule on the D) right, Cl, because it has a greater number of atoms. The molecule on the 129) left, CO , because it is less symmetrical. Why is calcium fluoride, Ca , a high melting point crystalline solid while stannic chloride, , is a volatile liquid? 129) _____ A) Aults T redict c to be h the t the e physic u oppos r al a ite. e propert l Since i y of l each s meltin y metal n g , is o point. wcomb t Meltin e ined h g point with e temper wa o atures o group r are u 17 y empiri l halog t cally d en, o determ the p ined. p heavi r er e metal d (tin) i comb c inatio t n t shoul h d e have s the e highe r r melti e ng s point. Ionic compounds opposite sides of the periodic table, like formed by elements on bonded structures, like . D) , tend to have higher melting points than more covalently Ca is a small, linear, while is a huge tetrahedral structure. Therefore the bonds in calcium fluoride tend to give it a higher non-polar molecule, melting point temperature. 130) A thin stream of water is pulled to a statically charged balloon. Might a small ice cube also be pulled to a statically charged balloon? 130) _____ A) Navior Y ins o is e compl , uniqu s etely t e to a solid, h water n no i while d attracti s in it N on b liquid o occurs. e state . Once h only. Wthe ice h begins i to melt l so that e both t phases h are e present i , the c attracti e on r becom e es m appare a nt. Yes, the same forces that cause the attraction in the liquid state are present in the solid state of water as well. D) Yes and No. Like the 131) thin stream of water, the ice must be in motion in order for the attraction to be observed. Which of the following is the strongest form of interatomic attraction? 131) _____ A) a ole- a e dipol d induce d e i d i intera p dipole p ction o interac l tion an ion-dipole D) interaction a chemical bond E) an induced dipole 132) induced dipole interaction Which of the following is the weakest form of interatomic attraction? 132) _____ A) a ea ole induc d dipole d ed i interac i dipol p tion p e o intera l ction a chemical bond D) an induced dipoleE) induced dipole interaction an ion-dipole 133) interaction Which of the following molecules would you expect to be the most strongly attracted to a Cl- ion? 133) _____ A) H-F C Cl4 H3C-CH3 D) F-F E) Cl-Cl 134) Which of the following molecules would you expect to be the least attracted to a Na+ ion? 134) _____ A) H-F C l2CH2 H3C-CH3 D) FE) HO 135) The separation of charges within a polar molecule is called a(n) ________. 135) _____ A) d ole- d ipole i dipol p e strong attraction D) ionic bond E) polar bond 136) What is happening at the molecular level when a polar molecule like water interacts with a typical sodium ion? 136) _____ A) T cule T he h aligns water h e such e molec that p ule is wthe o altered a hydro l makin t gens a g the e intera r hydrog r ct i ens mwith t more o the y negati l sodiu o vely e m. f charge t d. The water molecule D) aligns such that the oxygen interacts with the sodium. The polarity of the E) water molecule is altered making the oxygen more positively charged. none of the above 137) If an ionic bond is stronger than a dipoledipole interaction, how can water dissolve an ionic compound? 137) _____ A) T ctions kened T h of a h by the e bunc e ion h of i dipole i water o interac o mole n tions n cules i and - gang c ionic d up on b repulsi i the o on p stron n ejects o g d the l ionic i ions e bond s from and w the i pull it e crystal n into a . t the e soluti r on. a The ions never D) overcome their interatomic attraction and therefore are not soluble. The ion-dipole E) interaction causes the ions to heat up and vibrate free of the crystal. none of the above 138) What is the difference between a dipoledipole interaction and an iondipole interaction? 138) _____ A) o attrac o s n tion n hydrog e betwe e en en i bondin i neutr n g n al v while v mole o the o cules l other l while v does v the e not e other s invol d ves i dipol p e o intera l ctions e with ions one involves ionic D) molecules interacting with other ionic molecules while the other deals with polar molecules one involves salts and water while the other doesn't involve water E) none of the above 139) Which of the following describes an aqueous solution? 139) _____ A) a f a f polar m nonpol mmole i ar i cules x molec x dissol t ules t ved u dissolv u in a r ed in a r nonp e polar e olar o solvent solve o nt a mixture of some D) compound dissolved in water a mixture of water E) dispersed in an ionic compound none of the above 140) What is a hydrogen bond? 140) _____ A) a ipole- a of dipol s attracti s e p on p attrac e involvi e tion c ng any c invol i molec i ving a ules a hydro l that l gen t contai t boun y n y d to p hydrog p anoth e ens e er hydro o gen f atom d a special type of dipole- dipole attraction involving hydrogen bound to a highly electronegative atom D) a special type of dipole- dipole attraction involving hydrogen bound to any other atom E) none of the above 141) Which of the following is the main form of intermolecul ar attraction in a water molecule? 141) _____ A) h rogen p ary bondi o induce d ng l d polar induced dipole-induced dipole D) covalent bonding E) ion-dipole 142) Which of the following molecules is most likely to show a dipoledipole interaction? 142) _____ A) C H4 H CC- H SO2 D) CO2 E) none of the above 143) Which of the following molecules is most likely to show a dipoledipole interaction? 143) _____ A) C 3OH C H3SH H H-CC-H D) CH4 E) A and B 144) Which of the following molecules is most likely to show a hydrogen bonding interaction? 144) _____ A) C 3SH C H3OH H CH4 D) H-CC-H E) A, B and C 145) Given the above diagram, describe what happens electronicall y between these two molecules. 145) _____ A) Oslight O s x ly x slightl y positi y y g vely g positiv e charg e ely n ed n charge due B d due Ato the to the electr b electro b ons e ns on e on c the c the o water o water m molec mmole e ule. e cule. s Oxygen W becomes D) slightly negatively charged due to the oxygen molecule. Oxygen W becomes E) slightly positively charged due to the oxygen molecule. none of the above 146) Given the above diagram, describe what happens electronicall y between these two molecules. 146) _____ A) Oslight O mes x ly x slightl y negat y y g ively g negati e charg e vely n ed n charge due Wd due Ato the to the electr b oxyge b ons e n e on c molec c the o ule. o water mmole e cule. s Oxygen W becomes D) slightly positively charged due to the oxygen molecule. Oxygen A becomes E) slightly positively charged due to the electrons on the water molecule. none of the above 147) Given the following diagram, describe what happens electronicall y between these two molecules. 147) _____ A) O s O mes x slight x slightl y ly y y g positi g negati e vely e vely n charg n charge ed A d due B due to the to the b oxyge b proto e n e ns on c molec c the o ule. o water mmole e cule. Oxygen A becomes D) slightly positively charged due to the protons on the water molecule. Hydrogens on oxygen W becomes slightly positively charged due to the oxygen molecule. E) noneof the above 148) In which of the following molecules will water induce a temporary dipole? 148) _____ A) O2 N 2 CO2 D) all of the above E) none of the above 149) What is the main difference between a dipoledipole interaction and a dipoleinduced dipole interaction? 149) _____ A) B r, but D ipole o one i interac t invol p tions h ves a o are temp l strong a orary e er r dipol - becaus i e the e e create n induce s d by d d u dipoles i a mperm c can be i anent e formed l dipol d at any a e. d time. Dipole-dipole D) interactions are weaker because the dipoles are permanent. Both are identical. E) none of the above 150) Which of the following is most likely to have the weakest induced dipoleinduced dipole interaction? 150) _____ A) I 2 B r2 Cl2 D) F2 E) All of the above have 151) the same interactions. Which of the following would have the highest boiling point? 151) _____ A) I 2 B r2 Cl2 D) F2 E) not enough information given 152) Which of the following would have the lowest melting point? 152) _____ A) C F4 C Br4 CCl4 D) CI4 E) not enough information given 153) Which of the following would have the highest boiling point? 153) _____ A) C 2H26 C 8H18 1 C10H22 D) C6H14 E) not enough information given 154) Which of the following would have the smallest number of induced dipoleinduced dipole interactions? 154) _____ A) C 8H18 C 10H22 C6H14 D) C12H26 E) not enough information given 155) Which of the following intermolecul ar forces best describes why nonpolar molecules like gasoline (C8H18) have only limited solubility in water? 155) _____ A) ih rogen dipol y bondin o n e d g induced dipole-induced dipole D) dipole-induced dipole E) dipole-dipole 156) Which of the following intermolecul ar forces best describes why molecules like sucrose (which has many OH groups) are very water soluble? 156) _____ A) h rogen i y bondi n d ng d u c ed dipoleinduce d dipole dipole-dipole D) dipole-induced dipole E) ion-dipole 157) Which of the following intermolecul ar forces best describes why molecules like CF3CF3 are soluble in liquid CO2? 157) _____ A) d eh rogen i induc y bondin p ed d g o dipol l e dipole-dipole D) induced dipole-induced dipole E) ion-dipole 158) Friends on a crowded ice skating rink tend to stay together. Strangers, however, tend to disperse. Is this behavior typical of atoms forming chemical bonds or molecules interacting? Explain. 158) _____ A) Yhis Y mical e behav e bonds s ior is s are a not , analog n typic a ous to d al of t friends atoms in the o Nformi m rink. o ng s Atoms ; chem f held Nical o togeth o bonds r er by , , but m covale b yes i nt e since n bonds c it is g represe a typic c nt a u al of h molec s mole e ule. e cules intera t cting. No, opposites (like D) strangers) attract to form stable covalent bonds in the world of atoms and molecules. No, atoms forming the opposite. Chemical bonds forming or molecules reacting would be more analogous to strangers tending chemical bonds are just to stay together and friends dispersing. 159) The charges with sodium chloride are all balancedfor every positive sodium ion there is a correspondin g negative chloride ion. Since its charges are balanced, how can sodium chloride be attracted to water, and vice versa? 159) _____ A) D s A lose to i come s the s into a sodiu p play w m e as the a chlorid r sodiu t e it can s m e disting i chlori r uish o de m the n and o variou water l s ions f come e and it o into c is thus r close u attract c proxi l ed to e mity. e an g individ e ual ion t by ions dipole c forces. Hydrogen bonding in water allows the sodium chloride molecule to be attracted to the water molecule. D) This is not a matter of attraction. Sodium 160) chloride dissolves in water because water provides a medium in which the individual sodium and chloride ions can disperse. Why are ion-dipole attractions stronger than dipoledipole attractions? 160) _____ A) L (dipol D subject i e) i to k does p changi e not o ng attrac l from c t like e positiv h charg a e to a e r negati r (anot e ve g her a region e dipol s s on e.) a the r molec e ule. The chemical bond in an ion-dipole molecule is similar also a covalent bond. D) The magnitude of the 161) electric charge associated with an ion is much greater. Chlorine, , is a gas at room temperature, but bromine, , is a liquid. Explain. 161) _____ A) T ine T ne ions h mole h are e cules e held are b togeth s able r er by mto o ionic a pack m bonds. l toget i l her in e a r tighte c r h physi l cal o orient r ation. Chlorine atoms are D) larger and this makes the formation of induced dipole-induced dipole attractions more favorable. Bromine atoms are 162) larger and this makes the formation of induced dipole-induced dipole attractions more favorable. Plastic wrap is made of nonpolar molecules and is able to stick well to polar surfaces, such as glass, by way of dipole/induc ed dipole molecular attractions. How is it that plastic wrap also sticks to itself so well? 162) _____ A) b ipole- b dipoley induc y dipole ed w molec wdipol a ular a e y attracti y mole o ons cular f o attrac f tions d by way of induced D) dipole-induced dipole molecular attractions Ions are formed as the plastic rubs against itself. 163) Dipoleinduced dipole forces of attraction exist between water and gasoline, and yet these two substances do not mix because water has such a strong attraction for itself. Which of the following compounds might best help to make these two substances mix into a single liquid phase? 163) _____ A) t e far t le h left h becaus e becau e e when se the m the mO-H o salts o bond l mix l is e into e polar c the c and u water, u the l it will l carbo e help e n and i separat hydro n e the o gen t water n bonds and h are e decrea t nonp m se the h olar i attracti d on for d itself The molecule on the right will form D) attractions with the polar ends of the water, allowing the gasoline a chance to mix with the water. All of these molecules would be equally effective at increasing the mixing of gasoline and water. 164) How are oxygen molecules attracted to water molecules? 164) _____ A) T water T etween h mole h oxyge e cules e n and for a water a one t molec t anoth t ules is t er is r a r part a classic a of the c examp c com t le of t mon i dipolei atom o dipole o effect n interac n . b tion. Since o both f mole o cules x conta y in g oxyg e en, n there is a a builtn in d attrac tion. The hydrogen bonding in water causes the attraction of the oxygen atoms in the D) molecule to water. As a water molecule is brought close to an oxygen molecule an induced dipole results in the 165) molecule causing the attraction. List the following compounds in order of increasing boiling point: , . , , 165) _____ A) , , , B) , , , , , , D) , 1 , , 66) Why is the surface area of a gecko's foot so extensive? 166) _____ A) T rea, A acts h once like a e charg g large ed by e dipole e the c and x gecko k thus t 's o allows e body, ' for n allow s ions s for f dipole i the o interac v dipol o tion in e et water. dipol s e u attrac r tion f of a every c conta e ct surfa a ce. The greater the surface number of induced dipole-induced dipole forces of attraction that can occur between the gecko's foot and the area the greater the surface. D) A gecko, like all 167) amphibians, needs extensive surface area under foot for stability on land as well as mobility in water. Deuterium oxide, O, and water, O, have the same chemical structure and differ only in that O possesses the deuterium isotope of hydrogen, whereas water possesses the protium isotope. Deuterium oxide, also known as "heavy water," is 11 percent heavier than water. Might you expect its boiling temperature also to be about 11 percent greater? Why or why not? 167) _____ A) S radio S emical i active i structu n , it n res, c break c there e s e is a down t similar d more h molec e easily e ular u , so it y attracti t has a h on e lower a betwee r boilin v n the i g e molec u temp t ules, meratur h so e than their e i water s boiling s . a temper m atures e are c similar h . Since boiling temperature is a D) measure of the speed of a molecule, the heavier molecules move slower and thus have a higher boiling temperature. The mass of the molecules has a far 168) greater influence on the boiling temperature of the substance than does the polarity of the molecules, so boils at a higher temperature. O Two chemical structures are shown, one of a typical gasoline molecule and the other of a typical motor oil molecule. Which is which? Base your reasoning not on memorizatio n but rather upon what you know about molecular interactions and the various physical properties of gasoline and motor oil. 168) _____ A) S e gas S illustra t mole t ting a r cule r molec u becau u ule c se c with t there t greater u are u induce r more r d e bonds dipolee to A induce Again d energ r dipole r y e molec e from, p ular p givin r interac r g it a e tions e highe s thus, s r e the e energ n molec n y t ules t conte s are s nt m strongl t than o y h oil. t attract o ed to r one o anothe i r. l, Structure B represents processed to generate longer molecules of gasoline to prevent toxic vapors from harming consumers. crude oil which is D) Structure B represents Because oil molecules are smaller, they can compact closer together, giving the appearance of a thicker the oil molecule. solution than gasoline. 169) What is the boiling temperature of a single water molecule? Does this question make sense? 169) _____ A) Ye 1 ovalen e sense 0 t s becau 0 bonds , se ° of the t temp C water h eratur i molec i e n ule has s meas d been q ures i broken u the c to give e avera a rise to s ge t hydrog t kineti e en and i c s oxyge o energ w n n y of a h atoms mole e which d cule, n are o whic t release e h is h d into s 100° e atmosp mC for c here. a water k . No, this question does not make sense because you need at least two molecules to get the average kinetic energy. D) Boiling involves the 170) separation of many molecules (plural). With only one molecule, the concept of boiling is meaningless. Which of the following statements does not describe a property of water? 170) _____ A) I le Mties of t that is water a i found n are a s in all y direct t three o conseq h phase f uence e s t of the (solid h interat o , e omic n liquid p forces l , gas) r betwee y in o n large p water mquant e molec o ities r ules. l on e the c plane u t. Water is very resistant to a change in temperature. D) The hydrogens of a E) water molecule have a partial negative charge and the oxygen has a partial positive charge. You are made mostly of water. 171) Like water, hydrogen fluoride, HF, and ammonia, N , have relatively high boiling points. Explain. 171) _____ A) E d N T ach of v h these e have e materi n ionic p als bonds o have t , like l relativ h water a ely o they r strong u have m attracti g a o ons for h stron l themse g e lves, Hattrac c which F tion u transla for l tes to a thems e relativ n elves. s ely o high f boiling e points. Since these are all relatively small D) molecules, they can compact more tightly together, and will require more energy to be separated from each other. Since these molecules in long chains, they have many regions of attraction and are held together relatively tightly, thus, they are interact with each other harder to pull apart when boiling. 1) C 2) A 3) A 4) C 5) A 6) C 7) D 8) E 9) D 10) C 11) A 12) B 13) D 14) B 15) A 16) B 17) B 18) C 19) D 20) A 21) C 22) D 23) D 24) D 25) E 26) D 27) E 28) D 29) E 30) C 31) D 32) A 33) D 34) D 35) C 36) C 37) D 38) B 39) A 40) E 41) B 42) C 43) D 44) B 45) D 46) B 47) D 48) A 49) B 50) B 51) E 52) D 53) C 54) B 55) A 56) E 57) C 58) C 59) C 60) B 61) A 62) E 63) B 64) C 65) B 66) C 67) B 68) A 69) D 70) A 71) E 72) D 73) E 74) C 75) C 76) C 77) C 78) A 79) A 80) E 81) D 82) E 83) D 84) E 85) C 86) E 87) D 88) A 89) D 90) C 91) E 92) D 93) A 94) B 95) C 96) B 97) C 98) C 99) B 100) D 101) A 102) D 103) C 104) B 105) C 106) D 107) D 108) C 109) B 110) C 111) C 112) A 113) C 114) B 115) A 116) A 117) E 118) E 119) B 120) A 121) C 122) A 123) B 124) A 125) A 126) D 127) D 128) B 129) C 130) C 131) D 132) D 133) A 134) C 135) B 136) C 137) A 138) A 139) C 140) C 141) A 142) C 143) E 144) B 145) B 146) A 147) C 148) D 149) A 150) D 151) A 152) A 153) A 154) C 155) C 156) A 157) D 158) B 159) B 160) D 161) D 162) C 163) A 164) D 165) D 166) C 167) B 168) B 169) D 170) D 171) B ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2011 for the course PS 300 taught by Professor Na during the Spring '11 term at Cornell.
- Spring '11