ch16 - MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that...

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Unformatted text preview: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) What is the difference between a compound and a mixture? 1) _______ A) Tre A hysically hdo m separated e not i into its ha x compone c ve t nts; a othe u compoun m r d cannot sa pme e be opro c physicall nper a y e ties separated n nind b into its t ivi e compone s du p nts. all oy f as the a y do m wh i en xmi t xe ud. A compound is just a mixture of elements. D) The components of a compound have the same properties individually as they do when mixed. E) A compound can be 2) physically separated into its components; a mixture cannot be physically separated into its components. Which of the following is a mixture? 2) _______ A) i ron s alt gold D) helium E) air 3) The following image represents which kind of matter? 3) _______ A) a ele a mixture nme nt a compound D) none of the above E) all of the above 4) The following image represents which kind of matter? 4) _______ A) a ele a ompound nme c nt a mixture D) none of the above E) all of the above 5) A combination of two or more substances in which they no longer retain their chemical properties is called a(n) ________. 5) _______ A) c po m ixture oun m d suspension D) periodic trend E) heterogeneous mixture 6) You take 50 mL of small BB's and combine them with of large BB's and you get a total of 90 mL of BB's of mixed size. Which of the following statements best explains this? 6) _______ A) Tsin M BB's are hce a able to fit e mi n within xin y the t g o pockets othe f of space t BB t that were a 's h empty l wo e within uld s the vlea m of ove al large l ad le BB's. uditi r m on e al air a spa c ce t bec uaus a e l of l the ydif fer genc e e t in s siz e l of a the r tw go e BB r set s. Since the density of the small BB's is less than that of the large BB's their volumes do not add directly to one another. D) This is not possible 7) since the Law of Conservation of Volume would be violated. Each circle represents an atom. Which of the following boxes contains an element? A compound? A mixture? 7) _______ A) e ; el t: A, C; l co e compoun e mp m d: A, B; m e mixture: ou e nd: n A, B nA, t B, : C; mi A xtu , re: A, CB element: A, C; D) compound: A, B; mixture: A element: C; compound: A, B; mixture: B 8) What is the difference between a compound and a mixture? 8) _______ A) Tich O a solid hthe n and the e ir e other is a ato is liquid. w ms a are ybo nd i ed ntog eth w er. h They both consist of D) atoms from different elements. The components of a 9) mixture are not chemically bonded together. How might you separate a mixture of sand and salt? 9) _______ A) w h e mixture ers i an e until one t d a at of the hma t compone gni h nts melts t fyi w ng e gla e ss z just add water D) Two of the above 10) answers are reasonable. Mixtures can be separated into their components by taking advantage of differences in the chemical properties of the components. Why might this separation method be less convenient than taking advantage of differences in the physical properties of the components? 10) ______ A) Trties T properti h of h es of the e the e compon com c ents of a c pon h mixture h ents e are too e of a m differen mmixt i t from i ure c each c are a other. a too l l simi p lar r to o each p othe e r. A chemical property D) involves a chemical change so that you no longer have what you had. Chemical properties are not as apparent as are physical properties. 11) Why can't the elements of a compound be separated from one another by physical means? 11) ______ A) Eund T oms are l with h too e in a e tightly mcom ir bound e pou a to one n nd t another. t tend s to be f inert o . They are too D) homogeneous when found within a compound. Elements tend not to be soluble in water. 12) Which of the following boxes represents a compound? A B C 12) ______ A) only A B) only B only C D) both A and C 1 3) Half-frozen fruit punch is always sweeter than the same fruit punch completely melted because 13) ______ A) t gar s ecules h sink u are less e s to g soluble the a in a s bott r halfu om. m frozen o solution l . the half-frozen fruit D) punch is warmer. crystallization is a 14) purifying process. Many dry cereals are fortified with iron, which is added to the cereal in the form of small iron particles. How might these particles be separated from the cereal? 14) ______ A) b eal a er and l to a d the iron e fine d particles n cons w will d iste a float to ncy t the top t and h pass e thro ugh c a e filte r r collect the iron filings with a magnet D) heat the cereal so that 15) the iron particles melt and thereby coalesce Which of the following is a pure substance? 15) ______ A) s t b king a wat a soda l er cooking oil D) orange juice E) duct tape 16) Which of the following would be considered a heterogeneo us mixture? 16) ______ A) milk v inegar salad dressing D) vegetable oil E) water 17) How would you classify the following material? swimming pool water 17) ______ A) a ele h erogene men e ous pt t mixture u r e homogenous mixture D) a pure compound E) depends on how many children have been in it 18) Which of the following would be considered a homogeneou s mixture? 18) ______ A) p tzel w ine r e sugar D) hydrogen cyanide E) rusty iron 19) When blue food coloring is dissolved in water, the result is a ________. 19) ______ A) h eous h e mixt e t ure t e call e r ed a r o susp g ensi e on n ogeneou s mixture called a solution homogeneous mixture called a suspension D) pure liquid E) homogeneous mixture called a solution 20) If you filter sea water to remove all of the particles you would be left with a clear ________. 20) ______ A) p e h eneous u liqui o mixture r d m called a o suspensi g on homogenous mixture called a solution D) heterogeneous mixture called a suspension E) heterogeneous mixture called a solution 21) How would you classify the following material? milk 21) ______ A) a ele a solution n men t a compound D) a heterogeneous E) mixture a suspension 22) How would you classify the following material? coffee (black) 22) ______ A) a omp a uspensi oun s on c d a solution D) a heterogeneous E) mixture an element 23) How would you classify the following material? coffee (with milk) 23) ______ A) a ele a solution n men t a suspension D) a heterogeneous E) mixture a compound 24) How would you classify the following material? a cappuccino (with foam) 24) ______ A) a omp a terogen oun h eous c d e mixture a solution D) a suspension E) an element 25) A sample of water that is 99.9999 percent pure contains 0.0001 percent impurities. Consider that a glass of water contains on the order of a trillion trillion (1 × ) molecules. If 0.0001 percent of these molecules were the molecules of some impurity, about how many impurity molecules would this be? 25) ______ A) 1 one 1 0 thou , 0 sand 0 0 : 1 0 × 0 ( ) , 0 0 0,000,0 00,000, 000 (one million trillion: 1 x ) 1,000,000,000 (one D) billion: 1 × ) 1,000,000 (one million: 1 × 26) ) What can be said about drinking water that is 99.9999 percent free of some poison, such as a pesticide? 26) ______ A) I f the I parts of n cont n the ami e contami e nate a nated a d c water c wat h there is h er 1 one part ther 0 pesticid 1 e is 0 e and 0 one , 99,999 , part 0 parts 0 pest 0 pure 0 icid 0 water. 0 e and p 999 a 9 r part t s s pure wat o er. The water is highly D) contaminated and surely not fit to drink. The ratio of water 27) molecules to pesticide molecules in the glass is so great that drinking the water is not problematic. What do chicken noodle soup and garden soil have in common? 27) ______ A) Toth T both h cont h example e ain e s of y ele y heterog men a eneous b ts. r mixture e s. They are both examples of compounds. D) nothing 28) Read carefully. Twice as much as one million trillion is two million trillion. One thousand times as much is 1000 million trillion. One million times as much is 1,000,000 million trillion, which is the same as one trillion trillion. Thus, one trillion trillion is a million times greater than a million trillion. Got that? So how many more water molecules than impurity molecules are there in a glass of water that is 99.9999 percent pure? 28) ______ A) 1 00 1 , (one , 0 mill 0 0 ion 0 0 trilli 0 , on: , 0 1 × 0 0 0 0 ) 0 , mor , 0 e 0 0 wat 0 er , mol 0 ecul 0 es 0 than , imp 0 uriti 0 es 0 mol , ecul 0 es 00 (one billion: 1 × ) more water molecul es than impuriti es molecul es 1,000,000 (one million: 1 × D) ) more water molecules than impurities molecules 1000 (one thousand: 1 × 29) ) more water molecules than impurities molecules Someone argues that he or she doesn't drink tap water because it contains thousands of molecules of some impurity in each glass. How would you respond in defense of the water's purity, if it indeed does contain thousands of molecules of some impurity per glass? 29) ______ A) Tse. I aren't h If m necessar e the p ily bad, r wat u in fact, e er ri they ' cont ti may be s ains e good for imp s you. n uriti o es it sho d uld e not f be e drun n k. Compared to the D) billions and billions of water molecules, a thousand molecules of something else is practically nothing. The water contains 30) water molecules and each water molecule is pure. Classify the following as element, compound, or mixture, and justify your classification s: table salt, stainless steel, table sugar, aluminum, ice. 30) ______ A) c xtur c d; o e; o element; mcom m compou p pou p nd; o nd o element; u ele u compou n men n nd d t; ; com mpou i nd mixture; compound; D) mixture; element; compound mixture; element; 31) compound; element; element How does a suspension differ from a solution? 31) ______ A) Aon A rogeneo l are s us t both u mixture h hom s consisti o oge p ng of u neo e differen g us n t phases h mixt s whereas ures i a a , o solution only n is a s the i homoge o com s neous l pon a mixture u ents h consisti t of a e ng of a i susp t single o ensi e phase. n on will a sepa n rate d by spin s ning u the s mixt p ure e in a n cent s rifu i ge. A suspension is a whose components can be separated by simple filtration. A solution is a homogeneous mixture which cannot heterogeneous mixture be separated by simple filtration. D) The difference between a suspension and a solution can only be determined by chemical means. 32) Which of the following boxes represents a suspension? A B C 32) ______ A) O reprO represe n esen n nts a l ts a l suspensi y susp y on. ensi B Aon. Only C represents a D) suspension. All of the boxes 33) represent a suspension. Is the air in your house a homogeneou s or heterogeneo us mixture? 33) ______ A) h us h neous e beca o because t use m it is e of o mixed r the g very o dust e well g parti e cles n it e cont o ains heterogeneous because it consists of different types of molecules D) homogeneous because it is all at the same temperature 34) Which of the following substances is pure? 34) ______ A) a ele a ompoun n men n d t i consisti o ng of n sodium i and c chlorine c ions a covalent compound consisting of one type of molecule D) all of the above E) none of the above 35) Red colored Kool-aid crystals are added to a still glass of hot water. The same amount of crystals are added to a second still glass filled with the same amount of cold water. With no stirring, which of the following would occur? 35) ______ A) W T crystals will i reac h will t h e never h unif K dissolve o orm o in either u colo o glass t r in l- until the s the a glasses t sam i are i e d stirred. r amo r unt i of n time g sinc , e b they o both t cont h ain iden g tical l amo a unts s of s wat e er. s The glass of cold water color first since there are no heat convection currents to impede the distribution of the dye. will reach a uniform red D) The glass of hot water color first since the higher kinetic energy provides for faster moving molecules to more quickly distribute the will reach a uniform red dye. 36) The same amount of red colored Kool-aid crystals are added to a still glass of thick sugar water and a still glass of distilled water. Both are the same temperature. Neither is stirred. Which should become uniform in color first? 36) ______ A) Bll T of thick o bec h sugar t ome e water h unif g should orm l become g in a uniform l colo s in color a r at s first. s exac s tly e the s sam e wtime i . Without stirring, it is unlikely that either glass will ever become uniform in color. D) The glass of distilled 37) water should become uniform in color first. Which of the following material phases cannot form a solution? 37) ______ A) g ases s olids liquids D) All of the above can E) form solutions. None of the above can form solutions. 38) In a solution made from one teaspoon of sugar and one liter of water, which is the solute? 38) ______ A) water t teaspoo h n e sugar D) both sugar and water E) none of the above 39) In a solution of 77 percent nitrogen and 23 percent oxygen, which is the solvent? 39) ______ A) n trog o xygen i en both D) neither E) Gases cannot form 40) solutions. A sample of steel is composed of 5 percent carbon and 95 percent iron. Which is the solvent? 40) ______ A) s teel ir on carbon D) Steel is not a solution, it is a mixture. E) A solid cannot be a 41) solvent. Which of the following statements describes a saturated solution? 41) ______ A) a of a bonated salt c beverag s wat a e with o er r bubbles l with u salt t at i the o bott n om a solution where the D) solvent cannot dissolve any more solute all of the above E) none of the above 42) Which of the following describes the term concentratio n? 42) ______ A) I unt It ven t of i amount i solu s of s te in t solvent a h per t give e amount h n g of e amo i solute. unt a of msolu o tion. It is the amount of D) solvent in a given amount of solution. It is the given amount of solution in a given container. E) It is what you are doing now to answer this question. 43) Which of the following solutions is the most dilute? 43) ______ A) o of o er of n wat n water e er e with 10 with li grams l 1 t of sugar i gra t m of e suga r r one liter of water with 2 grams of sugar D) one liter of water with 5 grams of sugar E) They all have the same volume. 44) Which of the following solutions is the most concentrated ? 44) ______ A) o of o er of n wat n water e er e with 5 with li grams l 1 t of sugar i gra t m of e suga r r one liter of water with 10 grams of sugar D) one liter of water with 2 grams of sugar E) They all have the same volume. 45) Which of the following solutions is the most dilute? 45) ______ A) 0 of 1 of water . wat li with 10 5 er t grams with e of sugar l 5 r i gra t ms e of r suga r 0.1 liter of water with 1 gram of sugar D) 0.2 liter of water with 2 grams of sugar E) They all have the same concentration. 46) Which of the following solutions is the most concentrated ? 46) ______ A) 0 of 3 s of . wat li water 1 er t with 30 with e grams l 1 r of sugar i gra t m of e suga r r 0.5 liter of water with 50 grams of sugar D) 2 liters of water with E) 0.2 gram of sugar They all have the same concentration. 47) Which has the most atoms? 47) ______ A) a le of a ole of heli m gold mum o a mole of lead D) All of the above have the same number of atoms. E) none of the above 48) What statement best describes a mole? 48) ______ A) a urry It arge ma i number l mm s chemist i al a s use to t that v count t live e atoms l s in r or e the y molecul grou l es. f nd the amount of D) molecules or atoms in 1 gram of something a very small number E) chemists use to count atoms or molecules none of the above 49) What is molarity? 49) ______ A) t of t er of h mol h moles e es e of of n solute n solu u per liter u te m of mper b solvent b liter e of r solu tion the number of liters of solute per mole of solution D) the number of grams of solute per liter of solution E) none of the above 50) Which of the following best describes a two-molar sucrose solution? 50) ______ A) o suc o solution n rose n that e diss e contains olve li 6.02 × md in t 1023 o 2 e molecul l liter r es of e s of o sucrose solu f o tion f one liter of solution that contains 2 moles of sucrose D) one liter of solution that contains 2 moles of water E) two liters of solution 51) that contains 1 mole of sucrose How many molecules of sucrose are in a 0.5 moles of sucrose? 51) ______ A) 1 102 3 × 1023 2 3 . molecul . mol 0 es of 0 ecul 1 sucrose 4 es of × sucr ose 0.5 D) 6.02 × 1023 molecules of sucrose E) 1 gram 52) How many molecules of sucrose are in 0.5 L of a 1 molar solution of sucrose? 52) ______ A) 1 gra 3 × 1023 m . molecul 0 es of 1 sucrose 12.04 × 1023 D) molecules of sucrose 6.02 × 1023 molecules of sucrose E) 0.5 53) How many molecules of sucrose are in 0.5 L of a 2 molar solution of sucrose? 53) ______ A) 0 .5 1 gram 3.01 × 1023 molecules of sucrose D) 6.02 × 1023 molecules of sucrose E) 12.04 × 1023 54) molecules of sucrose If you need 10 moles of sucrose, how many liters of a 4.0 molar solution would you need? 54) ______ A) 2 .5 L 0 .25 L 10. L D) 25 L E) none of the above 55) If you need 3.01 × 1023 molecules of sucrose, how many liters of a 4.00 molar solution would you need? 55) ______ A) 1 00 L .125 L 0 . 4.00 L D) 0.250 L E) none of the above 56) What is the molarity of 0.5 liters of a solution with five moles of sucrose in it? 56) ______ A) 5 mol 1 0 molar ar 0.5 molar D) 1 molar E) 2.5 molar 57) Which of the following solutions is the most concentrated ? 57) ______ A) 2 of a 0 L of a 1 . 2 . molar 0 mol 5 solution ar Lsolu tion 0.5 L of a 3 molar D) solution 2.0 L of a 1 molar E) solution 3.0 L of a 0.5 molar 58) solution Many solvents expand to occupy greater volumes with increasing temperature. What happens to the concentratio n of a solution made with such a solvent as its temperature is increased? 58) ______ A) S bilit S ter i y to i ability n diss n to c olve c dissolve e mor e more e it solute at i solu h a higher t te at a tempera h a s ture, its a high a concent s er g ration tem r has a pera e decrease ture, a d. g its r con e cent a ratio t n e has r incr ease a d. The concentration of a solution increases as the solute fits into the new spaces between the molecules. D) Since concentration mass is dissolved in a given volume, as the volume increases, the concentration decreases. depends on how much 59) How many grams of sugar (sucrose) are there in 5 liters of sugar water that has a concentratio n of 0.5 grams per liter of solution? 59) ______ A) 1.5 g B) 50 g C) 2.5 g D) 2 5 60) How many grams of sodium chloride are needed to make 15 L of a solution that has a concentratio n of 3.0 g per liter of solution? 60) ______ A) 5 g B) 30 g C) 45 g D) 14 1 61) What is the molarity when water is added to 2 moles of sodium chloride to make 0.5 liter of solution? 61) ______ A) 2.5 M B) 8 M C) 4 M D) 5 M 62) A student is told to use 20.0 grams of sodium chloride to make an aqueous solution that has a concentratio n of 10.0 grams of sodium chloride per liter of solution. Assuming that 20.0 grams of sodium chloride has a volume of 7.5 milliliters, about how much water will she use in making this solution? 62) ______ A) 9.5 L B) 9.9925 L C) 9.25 L D) 10 L 63) How are interatomic forces and solubility related? 63) ______ A) S on S a o the o measure l solv l of how u ent's u strong a b abili b solvent' i ty to il s l over it intermol i com y ecular t e i forces y the s are. inter d mol e ecul p ar e forc n es in d a s soli d. Solubility is a measure of how weak the intermolecular forces in the solute are. D) Solubility depends on the solute's ability to overcome the intermolecular forces in the solvent. E) none of the above 64) What happens when the molecule-tomolecule attractions in the solute are comparable to those in the solvent? 64) ______ A) Tcan T lution h hav h will e e e become infi s saturate s nite o d. o solu l bilit u y in t the e solv ent. The solute does not D) dissolve in the solvent. The material has only limited solubility in the solvent. E) none of the above 65) Which of the following might have the best solubility in water? 65) ______ A) C3CHC H3OH H3 O2 D) Cl2 E) none of the above 66) Which of the following might have the lowest solubility in water? 66) ______ A) O2 C H3OH CH3CH3 D) Cl2 E) none of the above 67) How is the solubility of a solid affected by temperature? 67) ______ A) Ature A rature s goes s goes up, t down, t the e the e solu m solubilit mbilit p y goes p y e down. e goes r up. a As temperature goes D) down, the solubility goes up. As temperature goes up, the solubility goes down. E) both A and B 68) How is the solubility of a gas affected by temperature? 68) ______ A) Aure A rature s goes s goes dow t down, t n, e the e the m solubilit msolu p y goes p bilit e up. e y r goes a dow t n. As temperature goes up, the solubility goes up. D) As temperature goes up, the solubility stays the same. E) both A and B 69) Describe what usually happens to a hot solution that is saturated with a solid as it cools. 69) ______ A) Toluti T solution h on h freezes. e soli e difie s s. The solid that is D) dissolved comes out of the solution completely. The solid stays in the solution. E) Some of the solid 70) comes out of the solution. A solid has a solubility at room temperature of 78 grams per liter. If 1.0 L of a hot solution containing 100. g of solute is cooled to room temperature, how much solid is formed? 70) ______ A) 7 8 g 1 00 g 1 L D) 22 g E) 78g/L 71) If the solubility of a compound is 72 grams per liter, how many grams of the compound will dissolve in 0.50 liters? 71) ______ A) 7 2 g 3 6 g 30 g D) 144 g E) none of the above 72) If the solubility of a compound is 30 grams per liter, how much solid is left undissolved if you mix 30 g of the compound in 0.33 L of solution? 72) ______ A) 10 g B) 30 g C) 20 g D) 33 g E) 0 g 73) What property primarily determines the effect of temperature on the solubility of gas molecules? 73) ______ A) t olari t onic h ty of strength h e the e of the gas i gas p the dipole strength of the solvent D) the kinetic energy of the gas E) the molecular weight of the gas 74) If you were to increase the pressure of a gas above a liquid (such as by pressing a piston above a liquid) what happens? 74) ______ A) Trced T ure goes h into h down e solu e and the tion p gas g and r moves a the e out of s solu s the bilit s solvent. i y s incr ease f s. o The pressure goes down and the gas goes into the solvent. D) The solution is E) compressed and the gas is forced out of the solvent. The amount of gas in 75) the solution would stay the same. Under which of the following conditions would you expect the highest solubility of oxygen gas in water? 75) ______ A) l ture h perature o and i and low wlow g h pressure t pres t above e sure e the mabo m solution p ve e the r solu a tion low temperature and D) high pressure above the solution high temperature and E) high pressure above the solution The solubility is 76) independent of temperature and pressure. Consider the boiling points of the following compounds and their solubilities in roomtemperature water. Why does the solubilities in water go down as the boiling points of these alcohols go up. 76) ______ A) Lcted A creases, a to s it is r one t more g anot h difficult e her e to keep r by b the indu o alcohol mced il from o dipo i evapora l le- n ting out e indu g of c ced i solution u dipo n . l le as e well s as by a dipo r lee dipo le mand o dipo r lee indu ced a dipo t le t attra r ctio a ns. As the boiling point D) increases, the size of the alcohol molecules decreases. Larger molecules are less attracted to one 77) another by induced dipole-induced dipole as well as by dipole-dipole and dipole-induced dipole attractions. The boiling point of 1,4butanediol is 230°C. Would you expect this compound to be soluble or insoluble in roomtemperature water? 77) ______ A) S lar Wttracted i area a to both n s on t ends of c this e 1,4 e mol r butanedi ecul w ol, and t e, it o it is h is u infinitel e inso l y r lubl d soluble e e in b in wat e water. a er at a r roo e m tem p pera o ture. Since there are no polar areas on this molecule, it is insoluble in water at room temperature. D) A high boiling point 78) means that the substance interacts with itself quite strongly. Therefore this molecule is not soluble in water. Why does oxygen have such a low solubility in water? 78) ______ A) W attr Wction for a act a itself is t one t stronger e anot e than its r her r' attractio by s n for a mea a oxygen n ns tt molecul d of r es. wea a o k x dipo y leg indu e ced n dipo le o attra n ctio l ns. y The hydrogen bonding in water keeps the oxygen solubility low. D) Both A and B are true. 79) Based on atomic size, which would you expect to be more soluble in water: helium, He, or nitrogen, ? 79) ______ A) As N igger l oute it and so t r r nitrogen h orbi o molecul o tal g es u is e should g fille n be more h d a soluble and t in water Hthe o due to e ato m greater m s dipolei will a induced s hav r dipole e e attractio s little b ns. mattra a ctio l n to l the e wat r er , mol i ecul t es. Since He atoms are D) smaller, more of them can fit into solution, so it has a higher solubility in water. He atoms are bigger and so helium molecules should be more soluble in water due to greater dipole-induced dipole attractions. 80) If nitrogen, , were pumped into your lungs at high pressure, what would happen to its solubility in your blood stream? 80) ______ A) Ye T ter the o solu h pressure u bilit e , the y of g lower c a r the a subs e solubilit n tanc a y. n e by o cha t ngin c g h the a pres n sure g . Nitrogen is not soluble in your blood. D) The greater the 81) pressure, the greater the solubility. The air that rather than air help divers to avoid getting the bends? a scuba diver breathes is pressurized to counteract the pressure exerted by the surrounding water. Under these conditions, excessive amounts of nitrogen dissolves in bodily fluids, such as blood. If the diver ascends to the surface too rapidly, the excessive nitrogen bubbles out of the bodily fluidsmuch like carbon dioxide bubbles out of a soda immediately after its has been opened. This results in a painful and potentially lethal medical condition known as the bends. Why does breathing a mixture of helium and oxygen 81) ______ A) Tily O stronger h flui x attractio e ds y ns for and g each h so e other e less n than l diss a they do i olve n for the u s for d blood, ma h so less give e helium i n li will be s pres u dissolve sure m d in the l . blood e Upo h and to s n a cause s dec v the omp e bends. s ressi o on, l ther u e is b less l heli e um to i "bu n bble out" t and h caus e e pote b ntial o har d m. The nitrogen in the D) blood will bind to helium, and so will be exhaled rather than being stuck in the blood. Helium is a smaller 82) molecule than nitrogen, so when it bubbles out of solution, it is less painful and less harmful to the body. How can you tell whether a sugar solution is saturated or not? 82) ______ A) Tbe a A are h prec s more e ipita l water r te if o molecul e the n es than wat g sugar wer is a molecul i heat s es, there l ed. t is a l h saturate e d r solution e . Add more sugar, if it dissolves, it is saturated. D) Cool the solution to see if there is a precipitate. 83) Which solute graphed above has a solubility in water that does not markedly increase with increasing temperature? 83) ______ A) KCl B) NaCl C) LiCl D) N a 84) At 10°C, which is more concentrated a saturated solution of sodium nitrate, NaN , or a saturated solution of sodium chloride? (See figure shown above.) 84) ______ A) Af A solution t sodi t of 2 um 1 sodium 5 nitra 0 nitrate, ° te, ° NaN , CNa C is more N concent a , a rated is s than a s mor a saturate a e t d t con u solution u cent r of r rate a sodium a d t chloride t than e , NaCl. e a d d satu rate s d o solu l tion u of t sodi i um o chlo n ride, NaC o l. At 10°C a saturated D) solution of sodium chloride, NaCl, is more concentrated than a saturated solution of sodium nitrate, NaN . At 20°C a saturated 85) solution of sodium nitrate, NaN , is more concentrated than a saturated solution of sodium chloride, NaCl. A saturated solution of compound X in water has a greater concentratio n than does a saturated solution of compound Y. Does it follow that compound X is also more soluble in water? 85) ______ A) Yolub S tions are e le i saturate s than n d, it , is c cannot c com e be o pou b determi mnd o ned p Y t which o beca h compou u use s nd has a n a o greater d grea l solubilit ter u y. Xcon cent i ratio s n in wat mer o can r be e obta ined s . No, the greater the D) concentration of a compound in water, the less soluble it is. No, concentration of a solution is not correlated with how soluble that solution is in water. 86) Suggest why sodium chloride, NaCl, is insoluble in gasoline. Consider the electrical attractions. 86) ______ A) S at S ne is so a are i strongly l too n attracte t attra c d to i cted e itself, s to g the salt, the a NaCl is c mse s exclude o lves. d. o mGas li p olin o e is s none pola d r so salt o and f gaso line i will o not n inter s act very t well h . Since this molecule is so small, there is not much opportunity for the gasoline to interact with it through any electrical attractions. D) Since gasoline is a very can only form dipole-induced dipole bonds, which are very weak, giving it a low solubility in gasoline. polar molecule, the salt 87) Hydrogen chloride, HCl, is a gas at room temperature. Would you expect this material to be very soluble or not very soluble in water? 87) ______ A) Hr H in water Cbeca C by l use l virtue of i it is i the s such s dipole/d a v ipole v sma e attractio e ll r ns r mol y occurrin y ecul s g e, o between s ther l the HCl o e is u and l little b O u elec l molecul b trica e es. l l e attra ctio i n to n othe r wHCl a mol t ecul e es. It is not very soluble D) because it is a gas, and all gases have very low solubility in water at room temperature. It is not very soluble because as a gas with 88) low density, it floats to the surface of the water and then into the surrounding atmosphere. Would you expect to find more dissolved oxygen in polar or tropical ocean waters? Why? 88) ______ A) Txyg T issolved h en h oxygen e in e in the r the r polar e trop e oceans ical w because wocea o the o ns u solubilit u beca l y of l use d oxygen d inte b in water nse e decrease b trop m s with e ical o increasi stor r ng mms e tempera o mix d ture. r up e the atm d osp i heri s c s oxy o gen l into v the e ocea d n wat o er. There would be more dissolved oxygen in the polar oceans because the colder oxygen would "sink" and dissolve into the water. D) There would be more tropical oceans because the heated oxygen molecules in the air would collide with and mix into the water. dissolved oxygen in the 89) Account for the observation that ethyl alcohol, OH, dissolves readily in water but dimethyl ether, C OC , which has the same number and kinds of atoms, does not. 89) ______ A) Ton- B her h oxy e lacks an e gen- c -OH carb a group, it h on u is i bon s significa g don e ntly less h dim d polar ethy i than is e l m ethyl l ethe e alcohol e r t and is c crea h not t tes a y readily r stro l soluble o ng e in n dipo t water. e le g char a ge t on i the v ends i of t the y mol ecul o e, f mak ing t it h high e ly solu c ble a in r wat b er. Because the carbons straight line, the ethanol can interact more easily with more water molecules, thus increasing its solubility. arrange themselves in a D) The hydrogen on the 90) dimethyl ether surround the molecule, shielding the inner atoms from interacting with the water. When you set a pot of tap water on the stove to boil, you'll often see bubbles start to form well before boiling temperature is ever reached. Explain this observation. 90) ______ A) T that T re h wer h formed e e e as the s diss s surroun e olve e ding d in b gases i the u from the n wat b air i er b dissolve t com l into the i ing e water as a out s it is l of a heated. b solu u tion. b The b solu l bilit e y of s gase s in a wat r er e decr ease t s h with e incr easi g ng a tem s pera e ture. s They are very minute pockets of water in the gaseous phase. When they get large enough, the water will boil as this gas escapes. D) These are dissolved 91) salts heating up and escaping from the water. Fish don't live very long in water that has just been boiled and brought back to room temperature. Suggest why. 91) ______ A) S pora T ow a i ted h higher n whil e concent c e r ration of e boili e dissolve ng, i d C s the s in the o salts n water. min e the wat o er f are now t mor h e e con cent wrate a d. t This e has r a neg wativ a e s effe ct e on v the a fish. The boiling process dissolved in the water. Upon cooling the water is void of its usual air content, hence, the fish drown. removes the air that was D) The nutrients in the 92) water have been destroyed. Why might a solvent like turpentine be better for removing grease and grime than water? 92) ______ A) Oe Woo polar i hav a and l e t doesn't a very e interact n limi r well d ted i with the solu s nonpola g bilit t r oils. r y in e the a wat s er. Oil and grease have D) similar interatomic forces as the turpentine and so are more soluble. Like dissolves like. E) all of the above 93) Which of the following picture might best describe a soap or detergent? 93) ______ A) a b c D) d E) none of the above 94) Which of the above would best describe how soap behaves in water? 94) ______ A) a b c D) d E) none of the above 95) Which of the above might best describe how soap behaves in a nonpolar solvent like turpentine? 95) ______ A) a b c D) d E) none of the above 96) What is the main difference between a soap and a detergent? 96) ______ A) S bio S o degr o a ada a p ble, p s dete s rgen a a ts r are e not. nd deterge nts are exactly the same. Soaps are made from fatty acids, detergents are synthetic. D) Soaps are all natural. E) Detergents are better 97) than soaps. Which of the following statements does not describes the similarity between soaps and detergents? 97) ______ A) B are B re made o synt o from t heti t fatty h c. h acids. a Both dissolve oils. D) Both are biodegradable. E) They have a polar ionic end and a long nonpolar tail. 98) Which of the following might best describe the product obtained from soap and hard water (i.e., soap scum)? 98) ______ A) a b c D) d E) none of the above Fatty acid molecules can align to form a barrier called a bilipid layer, shown below. In this schematic, the ionic end of the fatty acid is shown as a circle and the nonpolar chain is shown as a squiggly line. 99) From the schematic above: why do nonpolar molecules have a difficult time passing through the bilipid layer? 99) ______ A) Ns T ar o tend h molecul n to e es are p bind n repelled o with o by the l the n polar a bilip p water r id o molecul laye l es. mr, o thus l inhi e bitin c g u their l pass e age. The nonpolar molecules getting past the ionic heads of the fatty acid molecules, which are surrounded by water molecules. have a difficult time D) The nonpolar molecules are too large for the space through which they need to pass. 100) Fatty acid molecules can also align to form a bilipid layer that extends in 3dimensions. Shown below is a cross section of this structure. What is this structure called? (Hint: it forms the basis of all life) 100) _____ A) DNA B) a gene a cell D) a 1 nucleoside 01) Phosphate 3-, ions, were once added to detergents to assist in cleaning. What function did they serve? 101) _____ A) P ld P uld h reduc h bind to o e the o and s growt s remov p h of p e h algae h calciu a in a m t aquat t ions, e ic e thus habit i acting i ats o as a o recei n water n ving s softeni s the w ng wwaste o agent. o water u . Phosphate ions were D) large enough to bind with the large grime molecules and remove them. Phosphate ions were 102) relatively good at removing grease by binding with large nonpolar molecules. Which of the following might best describe the product obtained from soap and hard water (i.e., soap scum)? 102) _____ A) a b c D) d E) none of the above 103) Why might sodium carbonate (washing soda, Na2CO3) be added to hard water to aid in cleaning? 103) _____ A) T in the T p gets h water h softer e are e due to more s the h attrac o added a ted to a ions. r the d carbo nate i ions o 2 n charg s e. The ions solubilize the soap due to ion-ion intermolecular attraction, which improves the cleaning ability. D) The hard ions are E) dissolved by the added sodium ions. none of the above 104) Which of the following statements best describes what is happening in a water softening unit? 104) _____ A) T ved T water h from h softene e the e r are water i soften s , o ed by o maki n chemic d ng s ally i the i bondin u water n g with mintera t sodiu ct h m. i less e s with r the e soap mmole o cules. trapped in the softener, which filets out all the ions. The hard ions are all D) The hard ions in water are exchanged for ions that do not interact as strongly with soaps. E) none of the above 105) Why might softened water not be good for some one who is trying to reduce their dietary sodium ion intake? 105) _____ A) T n the T hes h softe h sodiu e ner to e m repla s from p ce the o the o calciu f body, t m t so a a and e person s magn n might s esium not be e i ions d getting u incre w the mases a dietary the t recom u sodiu e mende s m r d e retent l levels d ion in e of the a sodiu i body. c m. Water softeners work calcium and magnesium ions of the water with sodium ions, softened water contains increased levels of by replacing the sodium ions. D) A person needs a 106) certain level of calcium and magnesium in the water to help excrete the sodium from their body. Why do hot water heaters lose their efficiency quicker in households with hard water? 106) _____ A) T er T n the h calciu h inner e m e surface carbo c of the h nate a hot a depos l water r its c tank d oxidi i builds ze the u up to winner m the a tank point t wall. c that it a insulat r es the b water o from n the a heatin t g e elemen o t. The hard water calcium ions from the inner metal wall which react with the water heater base to form rust and deteriorate the bottom ions exchange with iron of the tank. D) The hard water calcium and magnesium ions corrode the heating element. 107) Which of the following is not a typical use for potable water? 107) _____ A) d inkin f ushing r g l a toilet irrigation D) cooking in a pot E) boiling 108) What is the purpose of adding aluminum salts and a base to water during water treatment? 108) _____ A) T ogeth I mprov h er gel t es the e and i taste. trap t dirt wand o bacte ria. t The aluminum removes the rust taste from the water D) The base dissolves the dirt. E) The higher pH kills 109) bacteria. Water being purified using aluminum salts and a base is an example of ________. 109) _____ A) a emica a emical l c separat c reacti h ion h on a physical separation D) an acid-base reaction E) none of the above 110) What is the purpose of allowing water to cascade or bubble in a fountain during the purification process? 110) _____ A) t unpl t r into o easan o the t m water r smell i and e ing x improv mchem a e o icals i flavor v like e sulfur to remove radioactive gases D) all of the above E) only A and B 111) Allowing water to cascade or bubble in a fountain during the purification process is an example of ________. 111) _____ A) a dissol i exchan ving o ge g in a n a liquid s a solid dissolving in a liquid D) a chemical reaction E) only A and B 112) What is the purpose of treating water with chlorine gas or ozone during water purification? 112) _____ A) t impro t improv o ve o e color taste to remove solids D) to kill bacteria E) none of the above 113) Treating water with chlorine or ozone during water purification is an example of ________. 113) _____ A) a ysical a d chang s dissolv p e o ing in h l a i liquid a chemical reaction D) ion exchange E) only A and B 114) Passing arsenic contaminate d water through a long pipe filled with sand and iron powder leads to removal of the arsenic by ________. 114) _____ A) a ysical f chang i p e l h t e r i ng out the suspen ded arsenic particl es ion exchange D) an oxidation-reduction reaction E) only A and B 115) Why isn't distillation used commerciall y to purify water? 115) _____ A) Oamin D oes not d ants i remov d boil s e at t suspen s lower i ded mtemp l particl e eratur l es l es a such l than t as dirt i water i and n and o humus g so are n . impo d c ssible o to n remo t ve. Water requires large D) amounts of energy to boil affordably. Bacteria are not killed during the distillation process. E) none of the above 116) When municipal water treatment plants are not available, which of the following methods of purification might be utilized? 116) _____ A) r erse c al e osmo h purific v sis e ation m with i chlorin c e chemical purification with iodine D) boiling E) C and D 117) Why is a large quantity of water used in industrial processes in the U.S. purified by desalinizatio n? 117) _____ A) I expen T ces are t sive h brackis i than e h or s using s metal l fresh o ion e water u rich. s . r s The sources are ocean water. D) There is not enough E) fresh water. none of the above 118) Why aren't solar stills used in more large urban areas? 118) _____ A) T not T not as h produ h efficie e ce e nt are y enou y reverse gh a osmosi d water r s. o . e They require too much sunlight. D) They take up too much space. E) all of the above 119) What is the special property of a semipermea ble membrane that makes osmosis possible? 119) _____ A) O ions Wmoves n travel a throug l throu t h the y gh e membr the r ane in t mem o one h brane n directi e . l on. y The pores in the D) membrane only allow water to pass through. Ions only move one E) way through the membrane. none of the above 120) What makes a semipermea ble membrane selective for one chemical species but not another? 120) _____ A) T e T al h mem h chemic e brane e ally select m reacts p by a with o size, t everyt r they e hing e are r but s big i water. i enou n gh for t water h only. The material is D) hydrophobic and therefore only allows water through. The material is E) hydrophilic and therefore only allows water through. none of the above 121) Which of the following accurately describes osmosis? 121) _____ A) T e T ntrated h from h solutio e the e n more l absorb i conce e s water o ntrate s from n d s the s soluti c more mon to o concen i the n trated g less c solutio r conce e n. a ntrate t d. The less concentrated solution gets more dilute. D) The more concentrated solution absorbs water from the less concentrated solution. E) none of the above 122) During osmosis ________. 122) _____ A) t e into t e into h the h the e conce e concen ntrate i trated i d o solutio o soluti n n n on s slower s faster m than mthan o they o they v leave v leave the water moves into the concentrated solution faster than it leaves D) the water moves more slowly into the concentrated solution than it leaves E) all of the above 123) Which of the following statements about desalinizatio n is untrue? 123) _____ A) Dation Y e e is an o distilla s energ u tion to a y c separat l intens a e salt i ive n from n proce u saltwat i ss. s er. z You can use osmosis to remove salt from saltwater. D) All are untrue. E) Only A and B are 124) untrue. What happens if you were to place a dilute solution that is in a bag made of a semipermea ble membrane and were to then suspend it in a very concentrated solution? 124) _____ A) T of the T ons h suspe h would e nded e eventu bag s ally s woul o reach i d l the z decre u same e ase. t concen i tration. The size of the bag D) would not change. The size of the E) suspended bag would increase. only C and D 125) What happens if you were to place a concentrated solution into a bag made of a semipermea ble membrane and were to then suspend it in a very dilute solution? 125) _____ A) T e of T of the h the h suspen e bag e ded woul s bag s d not i would i chang z decrea z e. e se. The solutions would D) eventually reach the same concentration. The size of the E) suspended bag would increase. only C and D 126) Which of the following describes reverse osmosis? 126) _____ A) Hater S ically i is a reacted g reacte l with h d t alumin with w um p alumi a particl r num, t es, e whic e which s h r chemic s absor i ally u bs the s binds r sodiu c to the e m h chlorid ions e e ions. s in an m a oxida l tion t reacti won. The water is heated D) until it evaporates and condenses in a pure form. High pressure saltwater is forced against a semipermeable membrane and fresh water comes out. E) none of the above 127) Which of the following would cost the least to purify by reverse osmosis? 127) _____ A) s a b ackish e water r water agricultural runoff D) All of the above are the same. E) None of the above can be purified by reverse osmosis. 128) Red blood cells have a high concentratio n of dissolved ions. When placed into pure water they rupture. Why? 128) _____ A) Oraws Wdissolv s water a es the minto t cell o the e membr s cell r ane. i until s it d pops. The cells are not stable outside of a biological host. D) Osmosis draws water out of the cell until it tears. E) none of the above 129) What is an advantage of using chlorine gas to disinfect drinking water supplies? 129) _____ A) E ine is I x absor t c bed p e in our r s bodie o s s as a v c miner i h al d l suppl o emen r t. es residua l protect ion against pathog ens. It gives the water a D) fresh taste. Residual chlorine in 130) water helps to whiten teeth. Why is it important to conserve fresh water? 130) _____ A) A popu I pensiv s lation t e to t grow i purify h s, so s nonpot e does e able our x water. h need u for mfresh a water n . There is little fresh D) water available to us on our planet. all of the above 131) Might reverse osmosis be used to obtain fresh water from a sugar-water solution? 131) _____ A) Nular N reverse o attrac o osmosi , tions , s only t betwe o apply h en s to e sugar m aqueou and o s mwater s solutio o are i ns l too s contai e stron a ning c g. n ions. d Yes, because sugar D) molecules are smaller than sodium or chloride ions. Yes, reverse osmosis 132) can be applied to any aqueous solution for the generation of fresh water. Cells at the top of a tree have a higher concentratio n of sugars than cells at the bottom. How might this fact assist a tree in moving water upward from its roots? 132) _____ A) W ushed C ions of a upwa e sugar t rds l are e by l more r osmo s dense. i stic w As s press i these p ure. t cells h migrat h e i down g wards, h cells c contai o ning n fresh c water e are n able to t migrat r e a upwar t ds. It doesn't. In fact, water makes it to the top of a tree because that is where the water molecules are being evaporated. D) Fresh water is drawn 133) upwards to the sugar containing cells by way of dipole-dipole molecular interactions. Why is flushing a toilet with clean water from a municipal supply about as wasteful as flushing it with bottled water? 133) _____ A) B ter is B ed o typic o water t ally t and t made h munici l from t pal e muni h water d cipal e are water b genera w. o lly free a t of t pathog l ens. Municipal water and bottle water have about the same level of purity. D) all of the above 134) Why is it significantly less costly to purify fresh water through reverse osmosis than to purify salt water through reverse osmosis? 134) _____ A) T verse F region h osmo o s, the e sis is r salt not n water e depen o needs x dent n to be p upon - transp e the c orted n salt o many s conce a miles e ntrati s from on in t the o the a oceans f water l . r . e The osmotic pressure exerted by fresh water is less. D) The osmotic pressure 135) exerted by fresh water is greater. Why do red blood cells, which contain an aqueous solution of dissolved ions and minerals, burst when placed in fresh water? 135) _____ A) T wate Mmolec h r acts o ules e to r enter dissol e the f ve the cell w r blood a than e cell t leave s wall. e the h r cell. The dissolved ions D) provide a pressure that eventually bursts open the cell. all of the above 136) Some people fear drinking distilled water because they have heard it leaches minerals from the body. What scientifically sound information might be offered to such a person? 136) _____ A) c stille a ounts h d d of salt i water d to the l to s distille l decre m d t ase a water h its l before e leachi l drinkin ng a g it d poten m i tial buy distilled water that has also undergone reverse osmosis D) Distilled water is 137) relatively pure water, which loses its purity once it mixes with everything else in your stomach. Southern Asia is marked by a wildly wet monsoon season in the winter followed by a starkly dry summer. How might the water from the monsoon season be best captured for use in the summer? 137) _____ A) Aith E d be acco a respon l mpan c sible a ying h for r hydro h catchin g electr o g and e ic u preser plant s ving d shoul e its a d be h own mconst o water ructe l in wd. d prepar s ation h for the o hot dry u summe l r. Water should be caught using large tarps, the the water funneled into storage barrels. D) Channels should be dug to guide monsoon rainwater to underground wells. 138) Does the concentratio n of chlorine in drinking water tend to increase or decrease as it leaves the water treatment plant and disperses into the community? Why? 138) _____ A) I ter I chlorin n evapo n e c rates c reacts r the r with e chlori e the a ne a bacteri s conce s a in e ntrati e the s on s water, . woul . more Ad A chlorin s incre s e is t ase in t produc h the h ed. e remai e ning wwater a . Decreases. Evaporative processes and reaction with organic bacteria would decrease the chlorine concentration. D) Neither. The chlorine 139) concentration in the water does not vary as the water is dispersed into the community. Which of the following statements about sewage is not true? 139) _____ A) Oted, A icipalit n sewa l ies c ge is l must e releas m treat ed to u sewag t the n e. r envir e onme a nt. All municipalities must treat sewage the same way. D) Treated sewage E) becomes drinking water downstream. None of the above are 140) true. What is the first step in treating raw sewage 140) _____ A) d sinfec r l of i tion e fine m particl o es by v settlin a g removal of sludge D) filtration of solids E) removal of grit by 141) settling Why is secondary treatment often needed for sewage? 141) _____ A) T o T ion is h many h conta e finely e minate r divid s d with e ed o danger partic l ous a les u bacteri r that t a. e need to be t filtere o d. There are too many D) dissolved inorganic compounds. The dissolved organics are too high and lead to bacterial growth. E) none of the above 142) What is the easiest way to eliminate organic components? 142) _____ A) F soluti r erse i on e osmosi l throu v s t gh e activa r ted t carbo h n e filters . Treat the solution with UV radiation. D) Aerate the solution and let bacteria consume the organics. E) all of the above 143) How is most of the energy required for secondary waste water treatment consumed? 143) _____ A) a tricity t to run a s to s distilla e illumi h tion l nate e equip e UV a ment c lamps as electricity to power air pumps for aeration D) as electricity to power hydraulic pumps for reverse osmosis E) none of the above 144) How do advanced integrated ponds for waste water treatment take advantage of solar energy? 144) _____ A) b ing b ng it to y plants power y use it u blower l to s s e consu i t me t waste by using it to heat solar stills D) by using it to power E) sludge stirring devices all of the above 145) If you have a leaky faucet dripping at a rate of one drop per second (drip drip drip) and it takes 20 drops to equal one mL, how many liters of water do you waste per year 145) _____ A) 1 500 L 1 0 L , 100 L D) 20 L E) 1 L 146) The measure of the amount of oxygen consumed by certain bacteria is the ________, which is also a measure of the dissolved organic material. 146) _____ A) o otic b emical s press i oxyge mure o n c deman h d water table D) leachate E) partial pressure 147) Where does most of the solid mass of raw sewage end up after being collected at a treatment facility? 147) _____ A) I old to I njected t farme t into i rs for i the s fertili s water s zer. i table. It is tapped for the D) generation of methane gas. It is buried in landfills. 148) How are the disinfecting properties of ultraviolet light and ozone similar to each other? 148) _____ A) B ide N ovides o resid e residua t ual i l h prote t protect ction h ion p again e against r st r pathog o patho p ens. v gens. r Both are relatively D) effective at destroying bacteria but not viruses. Both are relatively effective at destroying viruses but not bacteria. 1) B 2) E 3) C 4) C 5) A 6) B 7) C 8) D 9) D 10) C 11) B 12) C 13) D 14) C 15) B 16) C 17) C 18) B 19) E 20) C 21) E 22) C 23) C 24) B 25) B 26) D 27) B 28) C 29) C 30) A 31) A 32) A 33) A 34) D 35) D 36) D 37) D 38) C 39) A 40) B 41) D 42) A 43) A 44) C 45) E 46) C 47) D 48) B 49) A 50) C 51) B 52) B 53) D 54) A 55) B 56) B 57) C 58) D 59) C 60) C 61) C 62) B 63) A 64) A 65) B 66) C 67) E 68) B 69) E 70) D 71) B 72) C 73) D 74) A 75) C 76) A 77) B 78) D 79) B 80) D 81) A 82) D 83) B 84) B 85) A 86) A 87) B 88) B 89) B 90) A 91) C 92) E 93) B 94) D 95) C 96) C 97) B 98) C 99) C 100) C 101) B 102) C 103) A 104) D 105) C 106) B 107) C 108) A 109) C 110) D 111) A 112) D 113) C 114) D 115) C 116) E 117) B 118) D 119) C 120) A 121) D 122) C 123) C 124) A 125) D 126) D 127) C 128) A 129) B 130) D 131) D 132) A 133) D 134) C 135) A 136) D 137) D 138) C 139) C 140) D 141) D 142) D 143) C 144) A 145) A 146) B 147) D 148) B ...
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ch16 - MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that...

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