ch20 - MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–27. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The two most abundant elements in Earth's crust are 1) _______ A) silicon and oxygen. B) quartz and feldspar. oxygen and aluminum. D) silicates and 2 c arbonates. ) Based on its abundance in Earth's crust, most rocks contain a mineral composed of the elements oxygen and 2) _______ A) iron. B) silicon. C) carbon. D) su l The three sources that brought young Earth to its melting point were 3) _______ A) i itat i ating, m m convectio ion pal p n a co a heating, c ntr ct radiomet t act h ric ion e heating. hhea e tin a g, t rad i ioa ncti gve , dec ay ghea r tin a g. v impact heating, D) convection heating, radioactive decay heating. collisional heating, 4) contraction heating, radiometric heating. Young Earth developed a layered structure under the influence of 4) _______ A) g co g r ntr r a act a vion v i an it t d y a rad a t ioa n i cti ove ndec a ay. l d density segregati onthe process of differenti ation. meteorite D) bombardment. impact heating and convection in its interior. ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 5) What is the difference between a mineral and an element? 6) The majority of elements in the Periodic Table are metallic. Does this mean that most minerals are metallic? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 7) Most minerals can be identified by easily observable physical properties. In order of most useful to least useful, the identifiable physical properties are 7) _______ A) c fo h orm, a l har r odn d r ess n , , e cle c ava r ge, yan s d t de a nsi l ty. ss, cleavage, density, crystal form, and color. crystal form, hardness, cleavage, color, and density. D) crystal form, color, 8) hardness, cleavage, and density. The mineral gold (Au) is very soft. Gold's softness can be attributed to 8) _______ A) l pa s l, loosely a cke m bonded r d, al atoms. gan e d , str on c g l bo ond s ed e ato l ms. y large, tightly packed D) atoms. large, loosely packed, 9) and loosely bonded atoms. Color is not a reliable means for mineral identificatio n because 9) _______ A) m t ety i of h ncol e e ors r r , a an l d s che mi c cal oim m pur e itie s in i the nmi ner a al can vaff a ect r col i or. e are so many colored minerals. a minerals powdered color is different than its solid color. D) minerals can weather 10) and change color. A mineral's hardness is dependent on 10) ______ A) t ngth t trength h of h of its e its e ionizati che s on. s mic t al r bon e ds. the geometric D) arrangement of atoms; sheet structured tetrahedra are harder than chained tetrahedra. the size of its atoms, 11) large atoms are harder than small atoms. The property of a mineral to break along planes of weakness is referred to as 11) ______ A) cleavage. B) bond strength. fracture. D) hardnes s. 1 2) Minerals that have strong bonds between flat crystal surfaces tend to 12) ______ A) h well c ave a dev l more v elop e easily. e ed stre a ak. show poor cleavage. D) show well developed 13) cleavage. Minerals that have the same combination of elements but with different atomic arrangement s are called 13) ______ A) polygonal. B) tetrahed ra. polymers. D) polymor phs. 1 4) Mohs scale is defined on the basis of minerals that have different 14) ______ A) shapes. B) hardnes ses. colors. D) cleavag e directions. 1 5) Which of the following properties most clearly reflects the internal arrangement of atoms in a crystalline material? 15) ______ A) cleavage B) luster C) density D) co l ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 16) A ends C s the tendency on l of a mineral to m e break along the i stren a planes of ngth v weakness. eof its a What factors r che g determine amica e these planes of l l i weakness? ' bond ss. 18) Nam he aand r desc dribe nthe efacto srs sthat influ dence ehard pness. L ven i phys sical t prop ertie t s for hident eifyin g smine erals. MUL TIPL E CHO ICE. Choo se the one alter nativ e that best comp letes the state ment or answ ers the quest ion. The most common rock forming minerals are composed of predominant ly eight elements. These minerals are the 19) ______ A) s orat s i es, il l oxid i i es, c c sulfi o des, n and s carb , onat b es. ates, sulfides, and oxides. sulfates, oxides, and D) carbonates. silicates, carbonates, 20) oxides, sulfides, and sulfates. The most common mineral in the Earth's crust is ________ and the second most common mineral is ________. 20) ______ A) olivine, feldspar B) quartz, feldspar silicate, carbonate D) feldspar , quartz 2 1) Minerals are formed from the combination of different elements. The combination of different metallic elements produces 21) ______ A) n talli p lymorph o c o s. n min meral e s. metallic minerals. D) metallic and 22) nonmetallic minerals. Most of the world's sand is composed of the minerals 22) ______ A) quartz and muscovite. B) feldspar and quartz. silicon and oxygen. D) silicon and aluminum. 2 3) Galena belongs to the class of minerals known as the 23) ______ A) silicates. B) sulfates. sulfides. D) carbona tes. 2 4) There are five common rockforming mineral groupsthe silicates, carbonates, oxides, sulfides, and sulfates. Of these five groups, which two form economicall y important ores? 24) ______ A) silicates and carbonates B) carbona tes and oxides sulfides and sulfates D) oxides and sulfides 2 5) By definition, an ore is a mineral rich in valuable metals. To be considered as an ore means that 25) ______ A) t ls t s can be h are h economi e extr e cally eme m extracte mly e d to e valu t yield a t able a profit. a . l the metallic minerals are very abundant. D) the deposit is very rich and abundant in valuable metals. 26) A mineral deposit can be classified as an ore deposit when 26) ______ A) i ins v t valu a c able l o foss u n il a t fuel b a s. le metals are present in the deposit. valuable metals in the deposit can be mined at a profit. D) it contains valuable 27) gemstone quality minerals. Our Earth has many resources, but they are not unlimited. In the case of abundant metals, supply will most often meet demand. However, problems can occur when 27) ______ A) t proc h ores are r essi i depleted a ng g and low n cost h grade s s g ores p over r need to o ride a be r eco d mined. t nom e a ic n feas d ibili ty. there is a shortage of ores that can be mined at a reasonable cost. D) all of the above. ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 28) Most of the world's sand is made up of which two minerals? 29) What are the rock-forming mineral groups? 30) What is the major rock-forming mineral group? Give examples of minerals in this group. 31) What is an ore? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 32) The melting point of silicate minerals is strongly dependent on the amount of silica it contains. The first minerals to melt are those with 32) ______ A) l ing l silica o poin o content wt w and e and e highest s low s melting t est t point. msilic e a l cont t ent. highest silica content and highest melting point. D) lowest melting point 33) and highest silica content. The last minerals to crystallize from a cooling magma have the 33) ______ A) h g l elting i poin o point g t w and the h and e lowest e the s percenta s high t ge of t est m silica. mperc e enta l ge t of i silic n a. highest melting point and the lowest percentage of silica. D) lowest melting point 34) and the highest percentage of silica. Similar to the crystallizatio n of silicate minerals, the crystallizatio n of evaporite minerals occurs in a step-by-step process. The evaporite minerals that are the most difficult to dissolve 34) ______ A) p st h highest r foll a solubilit e owe v y and c d by e are the i the t first to p min h precipit i eral e ate. t s a that t diss e olve mor f e i easil r y. have the lowest D) solubility and are the last to precipitate. precipitate last. 35) Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed from 35) ______ A) t tatio c rbonizat h n of a ion. e min eral p s r fro e m a c wat i er p solu i tion. biochemical D) interactions. evaporites. 36) The first minerals to crystallize are those with the 36) ______ A) lower melting point. B) higher melting point. 3 7) The last minerals to crystallize are those with the 37) ______ A) lower melting point. B) higher melting point. 3 8) Minerals are formed by the process of 38) ______ A) magma differentiation. B) silica enrichment. crystallization. D) partial melting. 3 9) The first minerals to crystallize from a cooling magma have a 39) ______ A) l g h lting o poin i point wt g and a and h low ma m silica e high e content. l silic t a i cont n ent. high melting point and a high silica content. D) low melting point and a low silica content. 40) The last minerals to crystallize from a cooling magma have a 40) ______ A) l g l lting o poin o point wt w and a and low ma m silica e high e content. l silic t a i cont n ent. high melting point and a low silica content. D) high melting point and a high silica content. 41) As the process of crystallizatio n continues (from molten liquid to solid crystal) the composition of the molten liquid becomes 41) ______ A) d the d e min e p eral p l s l e that e t hav t e e e d alre ady i crys n talli zed. d in the mineral s that have yet to crystalli ze. enriched in the minerals that have already crystallized. D) enriched in the minerals that have yet to crystallize. E) both A and D F) both B and C 42) The process of crystallizatio n acts to 42) ______ A) e e e n crys n r talli ri i zed c c min h eral s in t silic h a. h the molten magma in silica. deplete the molten D) magma of silica. none of the above. 43) The precipitation of and crystallizatio n of evaporite minerals is very similar to the crystallizatio n of minerals from a magma. The first evaporite minerals to precipitate (crystallize) are those with the 43) ______ A) lowest silica content. B) lowest solubility. highest solubility. D) highest melting point. 4 4) For the crystallizatio n of minerals from a magma melting point determines which mineral will form first. For evaporite minerals 44) ______ A) malso s etermin e dete a es l rmi li which t nes n mineral i whi it will n ch y form g min d first. eral p will o for i m n first. t there is no single D) determinant. All evaporite minerals precipitate at the same time. solubility determines 45) which mineral will form first. Silica has a relatively 45) ______ A) high melting point. B) low 4 melting point. 6) Silica has a relatively 46) ______ A) high percentage of silicon B) low 4 percentage of silicon. 7) The first minerals to crystallize from a cooling magma have a 47) ______ A) l g h lting o poin i point wt g and a and h high ma m silica e low e content. l silic t a i cont n ent. high melting point and a low silica content. D) low melting point and a high silica content. ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 48) Describe the process of crystallization. 49) Describe two sources from which minerals can crystallize. 50) Which the first to crystallize in a cooling magma–minerals with a lower percentage of silica or minerals with a higher minerals are percentage of silica? 51) Which 52) mineral, quartz or feldspar, will crystallize first? Why? As the process of 53) crystallization continues (from molten liquid to solid crystal), how does the composition of the molten liquid change? In a cooling magma, which minerals are the first to crystallize? 54) In a cooling magma, which minerals are the last to crystallize? 55) The melting silicate minerals is strongly dependent on the amount of silica they contain. Generally speaking, which minerals are the point of first to melt? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 56) The process of crystallizatio n enriches a magma in 56) ______ A) s ther s ilica. i min l eral i s c that a hav e a low n melt d ing poin o ts. minerals that have low melting points. D) all of the above. 57) The process by which a single magma can generate several magmas of different composition s is 57) ______ A) partial crystallization. B) fraction al c rystallization. partial melting. D) partial distillation. 5 8) A rock's initial melting temperature is primarily determined by 58) ______ A) the rocks mineralogy. B) its heat source. its internal temperature. D) its water content. 5 9) Magma that solidifies before reaching Earth's surface is called 59) ______ A) intrusive igneous rock. B) a pluton. plutonic rock. D) all of 6 the above. 0) The two most common igneous rocks are basalt and granite. Basalt is commonly found ________, and granite is found ________. 60) ______ A) o oor; o ocean n on n floor; both t on the t the h continen h ocea e ts. e n floo o r c and e on a cont n inen tal f land l . on both the ocean floor and continental land; only on the continents. D) on the continents; on 61) the ocean floor. The Hawaiian Islands are predominant ly made up of 61) ______ A) metamorphic rock. B) volcanic igneous rock. sedimentary rock. D) intrusiv e igneous rock. 6 2) Basaltic volcanic eruptions tend to be 62) ______ A) s ving v uid and l and e have a o high r low wly y viscosit visc fl y. mous. o very fluid and highly viscous. D) slow moving with a low viscosity. 63) A rock's initial melting temperature is primarily determined by 63) ______ A) its heat source. B) its water content. the rocks mineralogy. D) its 6 internal temperature. 4) The most common igneous rock is formed from 64) ______ A) granitic magma. B) basaltic magma. andesitic magma. D) none of these 6 5) The first minerals to crystallize are those having the 65) ______ A) higher pressure. B) lower melting point. lower pressure D) higher melting point. 6 6) Rocks formed by cooling from a molten state are 66) ______ A) sedimentary rocks. B) precipit ated rocks. metamorphic rocks. D) igneous rocks. 6 7) As rock is heated, the first minerals to melt are those 67) ______ A) we w he i low it highest t est h melting h melt t point. ing t poin h t. composed of granitic magma. D) that have undergone 68) partial distillation. Rocks with a high water content have a 68) ______ A) lower pressure. B) higher pressure. lower melting point. D) higher melting point. 6 9) Silica has a relatively 69) ______ A) high pressure. B) low melting point. low pressure. D) high 7 melting point. 0) Igneous rocks are formed by the 70) ______ A) mrans c and e for o crystalli l mati o zation t on li of i of n molten n min g magma. g eral s in a the n Eart d h's inter t ior. cooling and D) crystallization of molten lava in the Earth's interior. partial crystallization of granitic magma. 71) Plutons form from magma 71) ______ A) at the Earth's surface. B) ejected from v olcanoes. below the Earth's surface. D) all of 7 these 2) Batholiths are massive plutons formed from the intrusion of 72) ______ A) andesitic magma. B) basaltic magma. granitic magma. D) all of 7 these 3) The most common extrusive rocks are generated from 73) ______ A) basaltic magma. B) granitic magma. andesitic magma. D) none of the above 7 4) The most common outpouring of lava occurs as 74) ______ A) volcanic eruptions. B) conglo merates. carbonates. D) fissure eruptions. 7 5) Mauna Loa is a 75) ______ A) cinder cone. B) composi te volcano. shield volcano. D) none of these 7 6) The most violent volcanic explosions are generally generated from 76) ______ A) shield volcanoes. B) cinder cones. composite volcanoes. D) none of these 7 7) The most violent volcanic explosions are generated from 77) ______ A) andesitic lava flows. B) basaltic lava flows. granitic lava flows. D) ocean 7 floor lava flows. 8) The silica content of magma greatly affects its viscosity. Magma with a high silica content has a 78) ______ A) h scos l viscosit i ity o y and g and w flows h flow quickly. s v quic i kly. low viscosity and flows slowly. D) high viscosity and flows slowly. 79) A composite volcano is formed by 79) ______ A) t latio a ture of h n of m rock e ash, i and cind x lava. a ers, c and c rock u debr mis. u successive flows of D) fluid basaltic lava. alternating layers of 80) lava, ash, and mud flow debris. Most of the batholithicsized plutons found in the continents are composed of 80) ______ A) basalt. B) sandsto ne. obsidian. D) granite. 8 1) The largest volumes of magma extruded on the continents are 81) ______ A) b tholi fl d and a ths. o plateau o basalts. from volcanoes with a high silica content. D) central-vent type 82) volcanoes. Beautiful cone-shaped volcanoes such as Mt. Fuji, Mt. Hood, and Mt. Rainer are predominant ly composed of 82) ______ A) granitic rocks. B) andesitic rocks. C) basa lti 83 ro ) . The volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands are 83) ______ A) composed of andesite. B) stratovo lcanoes. shield volcanoes. D) cinder cones. 8 4) The Earth's temperature increases with depth. Pressure also increases with depth from the weight of the rock above. As pressure increases 84) ______ A) a ture t ng point n incr h of the d ease e rock (at s, m depth) t rock e also e s lt increase mbegi i s. p n to e melt r . a the melting point of the rock (at depth) decreases. D) the rock above begins to melt. ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 85) As rock 86) melts to become magma, which minerals are the first to melt? What is 87) partial melting? What does 88) partial melting have to do with silica content of a magma? Minerals in volcanic rocks are usually smaller than minerals in plutonic rock. Why is this? 89) What two 90) factors can change a rock's melting point? Relate silica content to crystallization from a magma. 91) What is the difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks? 92) How does silica content effect volcanic eruptions? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 93) Some ________ rock is formed from minerals that were once dissolved in water. 93) ______ A) igneous B) metamo rphic igneous and metamorphic D) sedimen tary 9 4) The three most common cementing agents in a sedimentary rock are 94) ______ A) s iron c i oxid a l e, l i and c c sand a ston , e. ite, silica, and iron oxide. silica, carbonate, and feldspar. D) silica, calcite, and 95) hematite. The majority of surface rocks are 95) ______ A) sedimentary. B) extrusiv e. intrusive. D) metamo rphic. 9 6) Of the following rocks, the one that does not originate in sediments laid down by water, wind, or ice is 96) ______ A) conglomerate. B) shale. marble. D) sandsto ne. 9 7) As rock is weathered it breaks down and erodes. Sedimentatio n begins where erosion stops. Erosion is 97) ______ A) a emi d sition cal e and c proc c alteratio h ess. o n of m rock p material o . disintegration and D) fragmentation of rock into smaller pieces. transportation of rock 98) particles via water wind or ice. If the rock particles in a sedimentary rock are relatively small and if the grains are well sorted and well rounded, we can infer that the sediment grains traveled a 98) ______ A) s t s distance h dist h for a o ance o long r . rt time. long distance for a long time. D) long distance in a short time. 99) Limestone may be made up of 99) ______ A) s men p ant h ts l debris. e fro l m l mari f ne r ani a mal g s. animal bones. D) fragments of granitic 100) and andesitic rocks. Because sedimentary rocks are formed at the Earth's surface, they provide clues about past geologic events and settings. A low energy, quiet environment such as a lagoon or lake bed provide the perfect setting for the formation of 100) _____ A) arkose and dolomite. B) shale and evaporites. sandstone and shale. D) none of these 1 01) The most common carbonate rock is 101) _____ A) limestone. B) dolomit e. calcite. D) halite. 1 02) Layers of limestone in a rock outcrop often indicate that the area had at some time been 102) _____ A) c red n e site o by e of v water a volcan e . r ic t activit h y. glaciated. D) a desert area. 103) In a sedimentary rock, small rounded particles indicate 103) _____ A) a dista a distanc nce s e and l and h short o short o travel n travel r time. g time. t a long distance and long travel time. D) a short distance and 104) long travel time. In a wet and humid climate, the mineral halite will succumb to weathering more easily than granite because 104) _____ A) g ite is h s r more a relativ a resist l ely n ant. i soft t (hardn e ess of i 2.5). halite readily dissolves in water. D) all of the above. 105) Petroleum and oil reserves are often found in sedimentary rocks because 105) _____ A) t s o h often i e conta l s in a e fossil c ized r organ o ic c matte k r. cumul ates in the sedime nts. chemical changes occur to create these reserves. D) these rocks are very 106) porous and permeable. When rock is broken down into smaller and smaller pieces, we say the rock has undergone 106) _____ A) lithification. B) mechani cal w eathering. chemical weathering. D) erosion. ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 1 7) 0 W proc Peb are very common in a conglomerate, hesses bles whereas pebbles of marble are relatively athat of uncommon. Why is this? What are the t trans gran properties of the different minerals in form ite these rocks? asedi r ment 1 9) einto 0 sedi t ment hary erock ? 108) How does 110) sediment turn into sedimentary rock? Which of the rocks would be the first to weather in a humid climate? Which would be the last? Defend your answers. (a) granite (b) following sandstone (c) limestone (d) halite 111) How does sediment turn into sedimentary rock? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 112) Slate is metamorpho sed 112) _____ A) m foliat s ated a ed h rock r rock a compo b with l sed of l water e very e -tight , small , crystaa particl a ls. f es and o flakes l of i mica. granite, a foliated rock composed of alternating layers of dark platy minerals and lighter granular minerals. D) limestone. 113) Layered sedimentary rocks and foliated metamorphi c rocks share similarities because 113) _____ A) mtamor t in o phic h these s rocks e two t are m types f deriv i of o ed n rocks l from e form i layer r in a ed a paralle t sedim l l e entar s planes. d y rocks m. e both rock types are D) subjected to compressive forces. they both are formed 114) layer upon layer. The layered appearance of foliated metamorphi c rocks is due to the 114) _____ A) r stalliz m l e ation e deform c of c ation r miner h of y als. a sheetn structu i red c minera a ls. laying down of D) micaceous minerals, layer upon layer. realignment of sheet 115) structured minerals so that they are perpendicular to compressive forces. A foliated metamorphi c rock derived from granite is 115) _____ A) slate. B) quartzite. C) marble. D) gn e 6) A nonfoliated metamorphi c rock composed of carbonate minerals is 116) _____ A) gneiss. B) marble. C) slate. D) qu a 7) The property many metamorphi c rocks exhibit by flat or elongated mineral grains in parallel layers is called 117) _____ A) lithification. B) cleavag e. schist. D) foliation . 1 18) Mica is not found in 118) _____ A) quartzite. B) schist. C) gneiss. D) sla t 9) A nonfoliated metamorphi c rock is 119) _____ A) gneiss. B) quartzite. C) slate. D) sc h 0) The rock that has undergone the greatest extent of metamorphi c change is 120) _____ A) shale. B) gneiss. C) schist. D) sla t 1) Metamorphi sm caused by the close proximity of a magma source is called 121) _____ A) regional metamorphism. B) dynamic metamorphism . contact metamorphism. D) none of these 1 22) The metamorphi c equivalent of limestone is 122) _____ A) quartzite. B) marble. C) schist. D) gn e 3) In contact metamorphis m, we generally find 123) _____ A) d empe w ch, r rature a highy rocks t temper , at the e ature l conta r rocks o ct - at the wborde r contact i border. - r. t water-rich, lowD) temperature rocks at the contact border. dry, high-temperature 124) rocks at the contact border. Rocks altered by heat and pressure beneath the Earth's surface are 124) _____ A) extrusive sedimentary rocks. B) intrusiv e igneous rocks. igneous rocks. D) metamo rphic rocks. 1 25) Limestone may be metamorpho sed into 125) _____ A) schist. B) quartzite. C) marble. D) gn e 6) When the mineral assemblage of a rock changes due to high temperature and pressure, the rock undergoes 126) _____ A) secondary metamorphism. B) recrysta llization. crystal deformation. D) all of 1 the above 27) Fluids in a metamorphi c reaction 127) _____ A) n ralize s e the p u proce e t ss. e dup the proces s. have no effect on the process of metamorphism. D) slow down the process. 128) Metamorphi sm caused by the alteration of rock by both thermal and mechanical means is called 128) _____ A) regional metamorphism. B) contact metamorphism . dynamic metamorphism. D) none of the above 1 29) The characteristi c that distinguishes schist from slate is that schist 129) _____ A) i raine i es d and s graine f slate c d and i is o slate is n coars a finee er graine - grain s d. g ed. is not foliated and slate is foliated. D) is foliated and slate is 130) not. Contact metamorphi c rocks are typically not foliated because 130) _____ A) c hism t k does o occur h not n s e contai t from p n the a heat a correct c and r type of t not e minera mfrom n ls to e defor t produc t matio r e a n due o foliatio mto c n. o stress r . p contact metamorphism does not produce minerals, such as the micas, which are needed for foliation to occur. 131) Foliation in metamorphi c rocks is due to directed stress, which causes elongated minerals to orient themselves 131) _____ A) i s with alignm i n the n ent. face p of a each r plane a parall l el to l the e direct l ion of p maxi l mum a stress n . e in parallel planes D) perpendicular to the direction of maximum stress. so that smaller crystals precede larger crystals. 132) Regional metamorphi c rocks are distinguishe d from igneous rocks because 132) _____ A) mocks r etamor e often e phosed t have g rocks a a i are m"bake o foliate o d n d and r zone" a igneou p and l s rocks h igneo l are i us y not. c rocks m do r not. igneous rocks have D) interlocking grains and metamorphic rocks do not. they are finer grained. ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 133) What are the chief types of metamorphic rocks? 134) Distinguish between metamorphic foliation and sedimentary layering. 135) Can 136) metamorphism, caused solely by elevated temperature, occur without the presence of magma? Why or why not? What effect do fluids have on metamorphism? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 137) Rocks can begin to melt if 137) _____ A) a press h rising ure e magm d result a a from e s in a t the c suffic e Earth's r ient d interio e decre b r. a ase in y s the e rocks melti i ng n point. the rocks water content increases thereby decreasing the rocks melting point. D) all of the above. E) none of the above. 138) A sedimentary rock can turn into an igneous rock by 138) _____ A) c ction m ing o and e and mceme l coolin p ntatio t g. a n. compaction. D) weathering and 139) lithification. Rocks are grouped into three classes depending on how the rock was 139) _____ A) discovered. B) shaped. located. D) formed. 1 40) Igneous rock is formed from 140) _____ A) h empe c i rature r g s and y h press s ures. t t allizati on of molten magm a. solidified lava beneath the Earth's surface. D) any of these 141) As sediments accumulate, compaction and cementation produces sedimentary rock. This process is called 141) _____ A) lithification. B) solifluct ion. solidification. D) consolid ation. 1 42) Plutonic rocks subjected to high temperature and pressure transform by 142) _____ A) m dow d e n of e l existi f t ng o i miner r n als. g mation of minera l grains. recrystallization of D) existing mineral grains. any of these ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 143) Does the 144) rock cycle always follow a certain path? In other words, is it a one-way process? What rock 145) type is made up of previously existing rock whose formation does not involve high temperature and pressure? Is Earth's interior mostly magma? 1) A 2) B 3) A 4) B 5) An t is a material consisting of only one type of atom. Although a few minerals are composed of single elements, the majority of elemen minerals are composed of a combination of elements. As such, they are composed of more than one type of atom. 6) Althou gh the differe nt metalli 7) c elements combine and give us minerals, not all minerals made up of these metallic elements are considered to be metallic minerals. Properties of the single elements are very different from the properties of the compounds of elements. For example, the elements Na and Cl combine to form the compound NaCl. Whereas elemental sodium is a soft silvery metal, and elemental chlorine is a toxic yellow-green gas, when the two elements are combined they form common table salt, NaCl (the mineral halite). Although composed of metallic elements, halite is not considered to be a metallic mineral. B 8) D 9) A 10) A 11) A 12) C 13) D 14) B 15) A 16) Factors bond strength influence mineral hardness. Ionic charge: the greater the charge, the greater the attraction between ions and that hence, the stronger the bond. Ion size: the smaller the ion/atom, the smaller the distance between ions, thus a greater attraction influen and stronger bond. Ion packing: closely packed ions with their small distance between one another have stronger attractions ce and stronger bonds. Stronger bonds yield harder minerals. 17) Crystal structure and chemical bond strength. 18) The physical properties include crystal form, hardness, cleavage, luster, color, streak, and density. 19) D 20) D 21) D 22) B 23) C 24) D 25) B 26) C 27) D 28) Feldsp most common and abundant mineral, and quartz, the second most common mineral, make up most of the world's sand ar, the deposits. 29) Silicate s, carbonates, oxides, sulfides, and sulfates. 30) Silicate the most abundant mineral group in Earth's crust. Feldspars, quartz, pyroxenes, amphiboles, and micas are examples of s are silicates. 31) An ore is a mineral deposit that is rich enough in valuable metals that the metals can be mined at a profit. 32) D 33) D 34) A 35) A 36) B 37) A 38) C 39) B 40) A 41) E 42) B 43) B 44) D 45) B 46) A 47) C 48) Crystal growth of a solid from a material whose atoms come together with a specific chemical composition and crystalline lization arrangement. Beginning with the formation of a single microscopic crystal, the crystal grows as more and more atoms bond to is the the crystal faces. 49) Minera crystallize from 1) magma–molten rock from the Earth's interior, and from 2) water solutions–a) hydrothermal activity in the ls later stages of crystallization from a magma, and b) precipitation of minerals from chemical sediments. 50) The minerals with a lower percentage of silica. 51) Minera high percentages of silica are the last to crystallize. Feldspar, with its lower percentage of silica, will crystallize before quartz, ls with which is 100% silica. 52) The liquid becomes enriched in the minerals that have already crystallized and depleted in the minerals that have yet to crystallize. molten 53) The minerals that are the first to crystallize are those with the highest melting point and lowest silica content. 54) The minerals that are the last to crystallize are those with the lowest melting point and the highest silica content. 55) The first minerals to melt are those with the lowest melting point and highest silica content. 56) D 57) C 58) A 59) D 60) C 61) B 62) B 63) C 64) B 65) D 66) D 67) A 68) C 69) B 70) B 71) C 72) C 73) A 74) D 75) C 76) C 77) A 78) D 79) D 80) D 81) B 82) B 83) C 84) B 85) The minerals to melt are those with the lowest melting points; because high silica content minerals have relatively low melting first temperatures they tend to melt more easily. 86) Partial g is the incomplete melting of rock and minerals. The melting of different minerals with their various melting points results in meltin magmas of different compositions. 87) Partial g produces magmas with a higher silica content than the parent rock because the high silica content minerals are the first to meltin melt and the lower silica content minerals are left unmelted. 88) Volcan rocks form at Earth's surface. Plutonic rocks form beneath the Earth's surface. Because volcanic rock is extruded at the ic surface, it cools faster than plutonic rock. The shorter the cooling time, the smaller the crystals. 89) The e placed on a rock and the amount of water that the rock is exposed to. Inside the Earth, pressure increases with depth as a amount result of the increased load of rock above. As pressure increases, melting point increases. The water content of a rock also of affects its melting point. Rocks with a high water content have a lower melting point. Rocks with a low water content have a pressur higher melting point. 90) First of a single magma to generate several different igneous rocks. Minerals that have the highest melting points, which means those all that have the lowest silica content, crystallize first, followed by minerals with lower melting points (those containing larger crystall amounts of silica). As crystallization proceeds, the composition of the liquid in which the crystals form changes continuously. ization It becomes depleted in the constituents of minerals that have already crystallized and enriched in the constituents of minerals allows yet to crystallize, which acts to increase the silica content of the remaining liquid. 91) Intrusi form below the Earth's surface. Common intrusive rock formations are called plutons and include sills, dikes, batholiths, and ve laccoliths. Intrusive rocks are often referred to as plutonic rocks. Extrusive igneous rocks form at or very near the Earth's igneou surface. Common extrusive rock formations include volcanoes and fissure eruptions. Extrusive igneous rocks are often s rocks referred to as volcanic rocks. 92) Silica magma viscosity. The greater the silica content, the greater the viscosity (resistance to flow). Magmas with a high silica content content flow slowly, while magmas with a low silica content tend to flow more easily. As such, basaltic eruptions (low silica greatly content) are very fluid while andesitic eruptions (high silica content) flow slowly. The high resistance to flow can act as a trap effects to gases in the magma that, as pressure builds up, can cause the volcano to erupt explosively. 93) D 94) B 95) A 96) C 97) D 98) C 99) A 100) B 101) A 102) A 103) C 104) D 105) A 106) B 107) To get sedime nt, rock 108) needs to weather (break down). Once weathered, erosion carries away the raw material of sediment. The particles of sediment are then deposited, one layer upon another. Time and accumulated periods of further deposition cause the sediments to compact and harden. Fluids interacting with the sediment act as cementing agents further hardening the sediment into sedimentary rock. Granite minantly composed of quartz and feldspar minerals. These minerals (especially quartz) are very resistant to weathering. is Conversely, marble is metamorphosed limestone. Even though marble is hard and durable as a building stone it does succumb predo to weathering. With time, marble may dissolve from the conglomerate. 109) The transfo rmatio n of sedime 110) nts to sedimentary rock occurs in two ways—compaction and cementation. As the weight of overlying sediments presses down upon deeper layers, sediment particles are squeezed and compacted together. This compaction squeezes water out of the spaces between sediment particles. This water often contains in solution compounds such as silica, calcite, and hematite. These compounds, which are chemically precipitated from solution, partially fill the pore spaces with mineral matter and thereby act as cementing agents. Halite be the first to weather since it is composed of NaCl and dissolves easily in a humid environment. Granite would be the last to would weather since it is very resistant to mechanical and chemical breakdown. 111) The transfo rmatio n of sedime 112) nts to sedimentary rock occurs in two ways–compaction and cementation. As the weight of overlying sediments presses down upon deeper layers, sediment particles are squeezed and compacted together. This compaction squeezes water out of the spaces between sediment particles. This water often contains in solution compounds such as silica, calcite, and hematite. These compounds, which are chemically precipitated from solution, partially fill the pore spaces with mineral matter and thereby act as cementing agents. B 113) A 114) D 115) D 116) B 117) D 118) A 119) B 120) B 121) C 122) B 123) D 124) D 125) C 126) B 127) B 128) A 129) B 130) A 131) C 132) B 133) Metam rocks are defined by texture: foliated and nonfoliated. The kind of rock produced depends on the parent rock and the grade of orphic metamorphism. Foliated rocks include slate, schists, and gneisses. Nonfoliated rocks include marble and quartzite. 134) Foliati the realignment of minerals during recrystallization so that they are perpendicular to the direction of compressive force. on is Sedimentary layering is the result of the laying down of sediments one on top of the other. 135) Yes, burial metamorphism. As rocks are buried, they slowly heat up (due to the geothermal gradient) until they are in equilibrium by with the crustal temperatures surrounding them. This process can alter the mineralogy and texture of the rock. 136) Fluids pore spaces act as a catalyst to aid metamorphic reactions. When a rock is subjected to increased temperature and pressure, enclose the amount of pore space decreases and fluid is squeezed out. Fluids readily react with the surrounding rock. In general, the d in more fluid, the faster the reaction. 137) D 138) B 139) D 140) B 141) A 142) D 143) No, as implies, the rock cycle is cyclical and its routes vary. Igneous rock, for example, may be subjected to heat and pressure far its below the Earth's surface to become metamorphic rock. Or metamorphic or sedimentary rocks at the Earth's surface may name decompose to become sediment that becomes new sedimentary rock. Cycles within cycles occur in the Earth's dynamic crust. 144) Sedime ntary rock when the previously existing rock is subjected to forces of weathering and erosion. 145) No. Most of the Earth is actuall y solid, and the magma is derived from rocks that have melted. ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 02/11/2011 for the course PS 300 taught by Professor Na during the Spring '11 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

Page1 / 735

ch20 - MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 27. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online