lecture3 - Introduction to Electronics ECED3201-...

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Page 1 ECED3201- Introduction to Electronics Prof. Kamal El-Sankary, Ph.D Kamal.El-Sankary@Dal.ca Introduction to Electronics
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Page 2 Part I: Diodes (cnt’d) ECED3201- Introduction to Electronics
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V. Rectifier Circuits VI. Limiting and Clamping Circuits Page 3 Lecture Outline ECED3201- Introduction to Electronics
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V. Rectifier Circuits VI. Limiting and Clamping Circuits Page 4 Lecture Outline ECED3201- Introduction to Electronics
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Page 5 The dc voltage Vo is required to be as constant as possible in spite of variation in the ac line voltage and in the current drawn by the load. One of the most important applications of diodes is in the design of rectifier circuits. A diode rectifier forms an essential building block of the dc power supplies required to power electronic devices V.1 Introduction Block diagram of a dc power supply. A power supply is fed from 120-V (rms) 60-Hz ac line, and it delivers a dc voltage Vo (usually in the range of 5-20V)
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Page 6 A block diagram of a power supply includes : o A power transformer consists of two separate winding that couple magnetically. The primary winding having N 1 turns, is connected to the 120-V ac supply and the secondary winding having N 2 turns that is connected to the circuit of the dc supply. Thus an ac voltage v s of 120(N 2 /N 1 ) V (rms) is obtained . N 1 / N 2 is selected to obtain the value required to yield the particular dc voltage output of the power supply. o A diode rectifier that converts the input sinusoidal v s to a unipolar output. Although this waveform has nonzero average or a dc component, its pulsating nature makes it unsuitable as a dc source for electronic circuits hence we need a filter. o A filter that reduces considerably the variations in the magnitude of the rectifier output. o A voltage regulator is used to stabilize the output voltage. The output of the filter still contains a time-dependent component, known as ripple. To reduce the ripple and stabilize the magnitude of the dc output voltage of the supply against variations caused by changed in the load current, a voltage regulator, like a zener shunt regulator or other kind of regulators, is used. V.1 Introduction (cnt’d)
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Page 8 The half-wave rectifier utilizes alternate half-cycles of the input sinusoid. We will analyze this circuit using a more realistic battery-plus-resistance model. V.2 The Half-Wave Rectifier (a) Half-wave rectifier. (b) Equivalent circuit of the half-wave rectifier with the diode replaced with its battery- plus-resistance model. From the equivalent circuit shown in (b) : For ( V D0 =0.7 or 0.8 V)
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Page 8 V.2 The Half-Wave Rectifier (cnt’d) (c) Transfer characteristic of the rectifier circuit. (d) Input and output waveforms, assuming that r D ˂˂ R. In selecting diodes for rectifier design, two important parameters must be specified:
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lecture3 - Introduction to Electronics ECED3201-...

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