psych 215 Ch 01 student B - DefiningDevelopment...

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Defining Development Science   of human  development… all kinds of  people,  everywhere, every age, change over time
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1.1.1 Development  scientific  Theories Data Analysis Critical thinking  Sound methodology 
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Empirical Data Resolve subjective conflicts with empirical  evidence  Based on facts, objective info Avoid subjective opinions  Rein in personal bias Important to share data, conclusions Advance by refining, refuting, supporting research Stanford Prison study www.prisonexp.org Tuskegee  http://www.tuskegee.edu/global/story.asp?s=120759
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5 Basic Steps of Scientific  Method 1. Begin with curiosity, pose Question Based on theory, prior research, or observation 2. Develop  hypothesis Specific testable prediction about relationship  between variables 3. Test hypothesis Design, conduct research to gather empirical  evidence (data)
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1. Draw conclusions Use evidence to support or refute hypothesis 2. Report  results Offer alternative explanation Replication Repetition of study, using different  participants Supporting research Refining Refuting
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Including All Kinds of People,  1.1.2 ethnicity, background, sexual orientation,  Identify  Universalities Differences
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Interact Nature Influence of genes Inherited Nurture Environmental influences Family School Community Society
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Critical period Events  must occur  for normal development and 54 days after conception.  If critical period for limb development disrupted,  then child never develops normal limbs Thalomide Babies born with missing or deformed arms,  hands, legs, or feet depending on day took  medicine
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Sensitive period Development  occurs most easily Master language during sensitive period between  No period either critical or sensitive unless  combo of genetic & environmental factors
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Deficit, or Just Difference Difference-equals-deficit error Differences not wrong or right Scientific method Accurate assessments of deviation Difference may be asset, not liability Children who were deaf were not educated Sign language activates brain language areas All children learn better with gestures
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Observing Changes over Time,  1.1.3
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psych 215 Ch 01 student B - DefiningDevelopment...

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