Final Exam Review Fall 2009 - final

Final Exam Review Fall 2009 - final - Exam Review Chapter...

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Exam Review: Chapter 33 (part) and 34: Plant Transport: 1. Main 3 functions of stems: support leaves, transport nutrients, produce new tissue (meristems) 2. In herbaceous stems, identify the functions of: epidermis (protective), cuticle (stomata K+, Cl- and guard cells) gas exchange, (reference Ch 33 – p722 ) xylem (water transport), phloem (sugar transport), cortex and pith (storage, ground tissue) 3. Eudicot and monocot stem structure. (Fig 34-2, 34-3) Arrangement of vascular tissues; phloem, xylem, vascular cambium: monocot – dispersed as bundles produced by procambium; no vascular cambium; dicot – in ring produced by procambium; displaced by vascular cambium for secondary growth What makes primary tissue seem woody – palm with sclerenchyma (schlerids) Primary growth – increase in length; secondary growth – increase in girth Secondary tissue and the two lateral meristems: cork cambium – cork parenchyma and cork cells; vascular cambium – secondary phloem and xylem Secondary tissue occurs in some woody eudicots and all cone-bearing gymnosperms; monocots are herbaceous 4. Role of apical meristems in primary growth and lateral meristems in secondary growth Role of vascular cambium in production of secondary phloem and xylem Procambium sandwiched between phloem and xylem: xylem to the middle, phloem to the outside o Procambium gradually replaced by vascular cambium o secondary xylem (tracheids, vessel elements, parenchyma and fibers) to the middle (wood) o secondary phloem (sieve tube elements, companion cells, parenchyma and fibers) to the outside 5. Process of secondary tissue formation. (Fig 34-4) Vascular cambium divides: o toward the outside of the stem/root to provide secondary phloem displacing primary (inner bark) o to the inside to provide secondary xylem (wood) displacing primary xylem to the center core o More xylem cells than phloem cells made – therefore more wood than inner bark or periderm. Remember that one cell always remains meristamatic and ready to divide (stem cell) Cork cambium divides: o to produce cork cells (replace epidermis) and cork parenchyma (now outer bark or periderm) Bark = inner plus outer bark Remember lentils for “breathing”
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6. Secondary xylem and phloem transport; cells involved in vertical as well as lateral transport Rays or chains of parenchymal cells radiating from center provide for water and dissolved minerals transport from secondary xylem to phloem; dissolved sugars from secondary phloem to secondary xylem 7. Vascular cambium division; distinction between sapwood (younger outer portion) and heart wood (inner, older portion). (Fig 34-8) Annual rings (Fig 34-9) produced as secondary xylem produces wood each season – summer wood (smaller cell, less lush and more dense) and springwood (larger, lushous with water and minerals and less dense) 8. Water and mineral ion transport in a plant. Describe the path and what happens to the water when it reaches the leaf stomata (Fig 34-10)
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This note was uploaded on 02/12/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Final Exam Review Fall 2009 - final - Exam Review Chapter...

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