Chem 204.2 - ities: DO NOT OPEN EXAties: NTIL YOU'PEN EXAM...

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Unformatted text preview: ities: DO NOT OPEN EXAties: NTIL YOU'PEN EXAM UNTIL YOU'RE TOLD! Useful quantiM U DO NOT O RE TOLD! Periodic Table with electronegativities Kinetics Kinetics Z = (,d2)*vrms*concentration a k(T) = Z.p f(T); f(T) = exp[-Ea /RT] , † k For A#B, Rate = -d[A]/dt = d[B]/dt = k[A] E.N. ! (IP(eV)+EA(eV))/2 (Mulliken) Integrated: [A] = [A0] exp[-kt] A + B # C + D with rate constants k 2 , kA + B # C + D with r -2 . d[C]/dt = - d[A]/dt = k 2 [A][B]- k-2 [C][D] d[C]/dt = - d[A]/dt = k Integrated: [A] = [A0] exp[-kt] When d[A]/dt = 0 When d[A]/dt = 0 k 2 /k-2 = K = exp[-$G / RT] k 2 /k-2 = K = exp[-$G A # B with forward/backward rate constants k1 , k-1 . Integrated: Integrated: d[B]/dt = - d[A]/dt = k1 [A]- k-1[B] When d[A]/dt = 0 When d[A]/dt = 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 [A] -$G2/t RT]A 0] = k +[ if k-2 ! 0 [A] = k2 t + [A 0] k1 /k-1 = K = exp[-$G / RT] k1 /k-1 = K = exp[ Thermodynamic Formulas S = k ln W Mass-action law: n n [C] C [D] D K = n S n = kn/k-1 = k l1 W [A] A [B] B Thermodynamic Formulas /P P ) atomic mass: 1.01 amu 6.94 9.01 10.8 12.0 14.0 16.0 19.0 23.2 27.0 40.1 55.9 35.5 52.0 H Li Be B C N O F Ne Al Ca Fe Cl Cr Mg + CO2 # MgO2 . C-34 Joule.sec -230Mg + CO2 # MgO2 + C + -230 IPs (kJ/mole) atomic mass: h ! 6.62 10 2 Mg amu 40 1310 1.01 O2 # 2 Mg! 1.60.10-19 Coulombs 402 MgO2 # 2 MgO + O2 e O + O2 519 6.94 . -27 kg /395C + O # CO 1 C + O2 # CO2 amu ! 1.66 10 /395 2 2 900 9.01 . -31 N2H N -143 2 ( g) # 2 ! 9 ( g 799 10.84 (liq) + Hmelectron NH3.10)10 kg -143 2H4 (liq) + H2 (g) # 2 NH3 (g) . + 8 2O 1088 12.03 (g) + 3/2 O2 2(.g) # N2 (g)103Hm/s(g) -634 3 (g) + 3/2 O2 (g) # N2 (g) + 3H2O (g) -634 2NH 2NH c = 99792458 1402 14.0 2 H2 H ( ) + .10-18 +484 H2O (g) # 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 +484 1314 16.0O (g) # 2Ry2 !g2.2O2 (g) Joules 1 Debye es 3.30.10-30 C.m 1682 19.0 Gas ! Gases 1 eV/atom /!V-6.5 -ka /mole 2079 23.2 nRT PV = P = nRT ( 9 nb) J (n/V)2 PV = nRT P = nRT / (V-nb) - a (n/V)2 577 27.0 /2 kT = 1/Rm vrm082er-atm/(moleomic gas)E = 3/2 kT = 1/2 m vrms2 per atom (monatomic gas) E=3 2 = 0. s2 p l atom (monat -deg) r 8 (ide J/(mol 589 40.1 C - nR = C -oPV .31 al gas) e-deg) Cv = Cv = Cp - nR = Cp - PV (ideal gas) F p 96485 C/mole = 761 55.9 p vrm = v "(3kT/m) vrms = vrms"(3kT/m) 1254 35.5s rms -23 Volume ratio of a sphere: f = 1.35 k= of a p 10 J = 1 652 52.0 Volume ratio1.38 sx here: f /K .35 (excluded volume / sphere volume) (excluded volume / sphere volume) Somemole s o6.02a10i23 objects 1 heat ! f re . ct on $H Some heats of reaction $H $Svolume = nR ln (V2/V1) $STemp= Cp ln (T2/T1)= ndSln (V2/V1) $S$emp= Cprev /(T2/T1const.S = dQrev/T $Svolume R = dQrev/T dT TS = Q ln T at ) H = E + PV G = H -TS dWmech = - Pext dV $E = q + w n nD n [C]nC [D]nD APn = k1/k B or Q = P P or Q = P Cion law: PAK =B B for nAA+n-1B#nCC+nDD Mass-act P / C D n n [A] A [B] B f $S = Qrev Wdifferent = 0V/ (0/1)! mech =MPexnumber of different = cells, 0/1)! H = E + P! dW ( - = t dV W volume 0! / ( $E = q + w Widentical =TS! / ((0/1)! 1!) G=H-0 (M = number of 1 = number of molecule!s/.) 0/1)! 1!) Widentical = 0 (( 1 = number o dE = dQ + dW W ! (V/V0)N (= dQ +by N! for identical molecules) )N (T = (#Eb#S)v for identical molecules) dE divide dW W ! (V/V0 divide /y N! Q = heat absorbed by system, W = work done on sysbsm;beE byCv$T; , WH = Cp$done o= (active d.o.f.)kT/2 T; Q = heat ate or $ d = system $ = work T; E n system; $E = Cv$ $H = Cp$T Keq = exp[ - $G(0)rx / RT ] Probability2/Preq =bixp[1- = G(0)rxE2-E1] Probability2E/RT] (Boltzmann law)2-E1)/RT] = exp[-$E Koba elity $exp[-( / RT )/RT] = exp[-$ /Probability1 = exp[-(E $Grx = $G0rx + RTln(Q) E=3nRT/2 (i$Grxmonatomic gas)n(Q) q = C $T (C = heatal apacity) deal = $G0rx + RTl E=3nRT/2 (ide c monatomic gas) lnP = -$Gvap/RT = -$Hvap/RT + $Svap/R lnP = -$Gvap/RT = -$Hvap/RT + $Svap/R Electrochemistry Table of thermodynamic quantities at 298 K, 1 f tm. Table oa hermodynamic quantities at 298 K, 1 atm. $Hf kJ/mole H2O (l) -286 I2 (g) 62.5 IBr (g) 40.9 Br2 (g) 30.8 O2 (g) 0 N2O (g) 82.0 NO2 (g) 33.1 N2O4 (g) 9.16 N2H4 (l) 51 H2O (g) -245 NH3 (g) -46 CO2 (g) -394 C2H4 (g) 52 C4H4 (g) 888 C2H2 (g) 2276 Al2O3 (s) -1676 Al (s) 0 Fe2O3 (s) -826 Fe (s) 0 Compund $Gf kJ/mole -237 19.4 3.8 3.1 0 104.2 51.31 97.89 q = C $T (C = h Electroch Quantum Mechanics and Spectroscopy Quantum Mechanics and Spectroscopy $x$p * h )% = c p = mv En = -Ry/n2 )Laser = cn/2L E = h) E = Kinetic + Potential = 1/2 mv2 + V(x) H atom: V(r) = -e2/r En = h2n2/(8mL2) E(J) = BJ(J+1) E(v) = !+(v+1/2) B=!2/(2µRe2) + = 2,) = "(k/µ) µ=m1m2/(m1+m2) Dipole = qr and wavelengths: ed Color Transmitted coWavel. l. V iolet lue lue-green reen reen-yellow ellow range d transparent 350 nm green-yellow nm 400 yellow-orange nm 450 orange-red 490 nm red 550 nm violet 570 nm dark blue 580 nm bl ue 600 nm green 650 nm transparent 700 nm Colors and wavelengths: Colligative properties and phase transitions Absorbed Color Transmitted col. P = - P o ln(P) = -$Hvap /RT + $S vap /R A AA o Pgas = ngas KH Ptot = -A Po + -BPB Pgas = ngas KH A nA UV transparent $Tb = iKb mA Mole fraction: -(.) = violet green-yellow nA + nB 2 $Tf = -iKf mA 2 /$H blue yellow-ora*RTb /$Hvap Kb=M.W. nge P Kb=M.W.*RTb vap osmotic = MRT blue-green orange-red green red X-ray diffraction: NMR green-yellow violet yellow dark blue n%/a = 2sin& (Bragg) $E = 'MB orange blue (von Laue) ' = 42.6 MHz/Tesla n%/a = cos&2 - cos&1 red green B = '(Bapplied (all angles measured from lattice plane) IR transparent -1582 0 -740 0 anode-oxidize Sf " - RT/Cp ln Q oranode-oxidize Sf Compund Cp $Hf $Gf = nF = "J/mole-K J/mole-KkJ/mole $G°J/mole ° J/mole-K k = -nF J/mole-K $G° K = " - 0.0592/n log Q at 298= -nF ° = " 70 H2O 75 (l) -286 -237 70 75 +2.87 - # 261.5 I2 [(or 4.2 J/g-K] F2+2e9.4 2F- 261.5 g) 62.5 1# [or 4.2 J/g-K] F2+2e V 2F2+ + 5 9. + + nO4- + 259.0 IBr (g) 40.9 MnO4 .8+ 8 H + 25e 0# Mn + 4H2O M1.51 V 8 H + 5 e # 3 2+1.332246.3 Br2 (g) 30.8 Cr2O7 .1 + 14 H+ +46.3 - # 2Cr3+ + 7H2O Cr2O7 V+ 14 H+ + 6 e- # 3 2 6e 3+ 0 3 e- # Au 05 3+ + 3 e- # Au 205 O2 (g)9.3 2 0 2 29.3 Au + Au 50 V +1. 220 N2O 3g)5 (8. 82.0 Cl +12 e- # 2 Cl20 04.2 238.5 C1.362 e- # 2 Cl+ l2 + V 240 NO2 3g)2 (7. 33.1 O 2+ 51.31 + 4 e- # 2H O 240 37.2 + O1.+ 4H+ + 4 e- # 2H2O +2 23 V 2 4H 2 304.29 N2O4 7.3 7 (g) 9.16 Br +92e- # 2Br- 304.29 7.89 77.3 Br2 + 2e- # 2Br+1.09 V 2 N2H4 (l) 51 NO - + 4H+ + 3 e- # NO + 2H O N0.96V 4H+ + 3 e- # NO + O3- + 3 2 H2O (g) -245 Ag+ + e- # Ag Ag+ + V - # Ag +0.80 e +0.77 e Fe3+ + e- # Fe2+ Fe3+ +V- # Fe2+ NH3 (g) -46 CO2 (g) -394 Cu2+ + 2e- # Cu Cu2+ + 2e- # Cu +0.34 V C2H4 (g) 52 Cu2+ + e- # Cu1+ C0.16+V - # Cu1+ +u2+ e C4H4 (g) 888 2H+ + 2e- # H2 20.00 V e- # H2 H+ + 2 P0.130 Ve- # Pb - b2+ + 2 C2H2 (g) 2276 Pb2+ + 2e- # Pb 2+ + 2e- # Sn S0.140 Ve- # Sn - n2+ + 2 51 Al2O15s) -1676 Sn -1582 13 ( 51 115 Ni2+ + 2e- # N28 i Ni2+ + 2e- # Ni -0.23 V 28 Al (s) 4 2 0 0 24 Zn2+ + 2e- # Zn -0.76 + 2e- # Zn Zn2+ V 90 Fe2O3 (s) -826 152 2H2-740 2e- # 902 + 2OH- 152 O+ H -2H2OV 2e- # H2 + 2OH 0.83 + 27 Fe (s) 3 2 0 0 23 + + e- # Na 27 Na -2.71+ e- # Na Na+ V !!! !! !!! !! ...
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