(1)intro

(1)intro - 1.1 Introduction Software Instructions to...

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1.1 Introduction Software Instructions to command computer to perform actions and make decisions Hardware Standardized version of C++ United States American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Worldwide International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Structured programming Object-oriented programming
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1.2 What is a Computer? Computer Device capable of performing computations and making logical decisions Computer programs Sets of instructions that control computer’s processing of data Hardware Various devices comprising computer Keyboard, screen, mouse, disks, memory, CD-ROM, processing units, … Software Programs that run on computer
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1.3 Computer Organization Six logical units of computer 1. Input unit “Receiving” section Obtains information from input devices Keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, networks, … 2. Output unit “Shipping” section Takes information processed by computer Places information on output devices Screen, printer, networks, … Information used to control other devices
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1.3 Computer Organization Six logical units of computer 1. Memory unit Rapid access, relatively low capacity “warehouse” section Retains information from input unit Immediately available for processing Retains processed information Until placed on output devices Memory, primary memory 2. Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) “Manufacturing” section Performs arithmetic calculations and logic decisions
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1.3 Computer Organization Six logical units of computer 1. Central processing unit (CPU) “Administrative” section Supervises and coordinates other sections of computer 2. Secondary storage unit Long-term, high-capacity “warehouse” section Storage Inactive programs or data Secondary storage devices Disks Longer to access than primary memory Less expensive per unit than primary memory
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1.6 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages, and High- level Languages Three types of computer languages 1. Machine language Only language computer directly understands “Natural language” of computer Defined by hardware design Machine-dependent Generally consist of strings of numbers Ultimately 0s and 1s Instruct computers to perform elementary operations One at a time Cumbersome for humans Example: +1300042774 +1400593419 +1200274027
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1.6 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages, and High-level Languages Three types of computer languages 1. Assembly language English-like abbreviations representing elementary computer operations Clearer to humans Incomprehensible to computers Translator programs (assemblers) » Convert to machine language Example: LOADBASEPAY ADD OVERPAY STORE GROSSPAY
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1.6 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages, and High-level Languages Three types of computer languages 1. High-level languages Similar to everyday English, use common mathematical notations
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(1)intro - 1.1 Introduction Software Instructions to...

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