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Exam+3+Study+Guide+-+Final+Version - Psychology321 Fall2010...

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Psychology 321 Fall 2010 Exam 3 Study Guide – Final Version This is intended to be a guide only. You are responsible for all of the lecture material and assigned reading material. Attraction and close relationships 1. What is the affiliation motive? How does evolutionary theory explain it? What evidence is there for the affiliation motive (i.e., newborns)? -Affiliation motive – has to do with the need and drive to maintain an interpersonal relationship. -Evolutionary theory says that due to evolution it is an advantage to interact with other people. -Evidence – Newborns-> they prefer to look at faces (from birth motivated to be with other people) 2. How did Schachter study the need for affiliation? Schachter studied that when you increase stress you increase the need for affiliation. -Study where he told the participants that they will be receiving an electric shock to induce stress. -asked them if they wanted to be around other people who are also receiving the shocks or be by his or her self. -participant who were expecting shocks wanted to wait with others who expected electric shocks. -Explanation: -Communicate + compare affective responses -less freaking out -if other person does nothing -> lowers stress 3. What is an outcome of social isolation? (Ex: solitary confinement) -Negative effects -Increased mortality rate 4. What is proximity? How does it predict liking? -Proximity -> liking someone near you -increased availability -> less effort -since they are nearby there is a sense of familiarity 5. How does familiarity affect liking? What is the mere exposure effect? -liking people we see often -but there is some limit to this -leads to the mere exposure effect -the more you see a person increases your liking for them -Study: -college students given photos of faces-> more often saw familiar faces, the more they liked them 6. How does evolutionary theory explain the familiarity-liking relation? -natural fear of unfamiliar things 7. What are the limits of the familiarity-liking relation? -The more you see the person the more bored you get -if initially perceived negatively then repeated exposure may not lead to liking -Both have conflicting needs -Conflict between each other leads to dislike
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8. How does similarity affect liking? -liking those who are similar to you -Study: -Newcomb(1961) -> rented house in University of Michigan -offered free housing for anyone participating -paired some roommates similar + opposite -roommates who were similar liked each other a lot more -Matching principle: -People tend to date or marry partners who are similar to them -more likely to stay together -Explanation: -Social Influence: -partners are initially different in attitudes and values, but slowly influenced each other 9. What are the common facial features of physically attractive men and women? What are some possible explanations for this?
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