Lecture 9 - Attraction and Close Relationships

Lecture 9 - Attraction and Close Relationships - Social...

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Social Psychology Lecture 9 Attraction and Close Relationships Why do people seek friendship? h Affiliation motive – drive to seek + maintain interpersonal relationship -Universal Evolutionary –advantage to interact with other people -can’t do everything by themselves o Newborns –prefer to look at faces (from birth motivated to be with other people) Situational effects on need for affiliation h Mortality salience –increased need for affiliation Schachter – stress -> increased need for affiliation Study –induced stress by telling them they getting shocks + it’s going to hurt -> (DV) wanted to know if they wanted to wait with others or by self o Expecting electric shock -> wanted to wait with others who expected electric shock Explanation –communicate + compare affective responses (not clear as to how to feel so look at each other for responses) -less freaking out -even if other person does nothing -> lowers cardiovascular reactivity Social isolation Ex: solitary confinement Negative
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Increased mortality risk h Social exclusion (involuntary -> rejected, excluded, ostracized, etc.) -reduction in cognitive functioning Liking h Proximity –liking those nearby Explanations: o Increased availability -> less effort o Cognitive dissonance (reduce dissonance to like person) Familiarity –liking those we seen often -some limits to this Mere exposure effect (Zajonc, 2001) – repeated exposure to a person increases our liking for the person Study –college students shown pics of faces -> more often saw familiar faces, more liked them Mirror image study –mirror image of someone’s face looks a little different -we like our own mirror images better than actual -> see mirror more often, more familiar -opposite is true for friends Explanation: h Evolutionary –innate fear of unfamiliar things
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Familiar -> predictable Limits: -not for those initially perceived negatively -conflicting needs / conflicts -> dislike -repeated exposure -> boredom Similarity – liking those like us Study (Newcomb, 1961) –rented house near University of Michigan -offered free housing for anyone participating -paired some roommates similar + opposite -similar: liked each other a lot more Matching principle – we tend to date and marry partners who are similar to us -more likely to stay together Explanations: h Social influence – partners are initially different in attitudes and values , but slowly influence each other What is physically attractive? h
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2011 for the course 830 321 taught by Professor K.brynildsen during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture 9 - Attraction and Close Relationships - Social...

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