chapter 3 - Start of chapter 3 lecture notes -Hydrocarbons...

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Start of chapter 3 lecture notes
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-Hydrocarbons with no double or triple bonds - Least reactive organic molecules These molecules are either branched or unbranched (or cyclic) Branched or unbranched alkanes have the molecular formula: C H Alkanes with the molecular formula C n H 2n+2 are called saturated hydrocarbons Cyclic alkanes have an element of unsaturation and have a molecular formula where the number of H's is 2 (or some multiple of 2) less than 2X the number of C atoms.
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IUPAC Names Names have 3 parts: Prefix - parent - suffix Prefix – identifies the substituents bound to the main C chain Parent – tells how many carbons are in the longest, continuous chain of carbons Suffix – identifies the group or family of compounds the molecule belongs to
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# of C atoms structure name 1 meth- 2 eth- 3 prop- 4 but- 5 pent- 6 hex- 7 hetp- 8 oct- 9 non- 10 dec- 11 undec- 12 dodec- Number of C atoms and corresponding parent name
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Simple branched substituents “iso” = main chain-CH(CH 3 ) 2 or main chain-CH 2 CH(CH 3 ) 2 R Isopropyl R isobutyl R Sec- butyl R Tert -butyl
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Rules for naming Organic compounds Find the longest continuous chain of Carbons & use this name as the parent name if two chains exist with same # of C’s use chain with more branch points as parent name 1. Number the longest chain beginning with the end closest to a substitutent (branch point) 1. Name substituent groups with a number (representing the # C it is for alkyl substituents count C’s and use – yl suffix look out for degree of alkyl substitution & complex substituents 1. Organize multiple groups 1. If the same substituent is present more than once use the prefix 2. To identify the # of times it is present ( di = 2X’s, tri - = 3X’s…) 5. Alphabetize – use only alkyl group name except when iso- is a prefix
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3 2 4 1 5 6 hexane 1 2 3 trimethyl 2,3,3- CH(CH 3 ) 2 C(CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3
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4-isopropyl-2,2,3,6-tetramethyloctane A A – identifies what type of organic molecule you have B B – tells how many C’s are in the main chain C C – tells what substituents are bound to the main chain C D D – tells how many of this type of substituent the molecule has bound E E E – tells where on the main Carbon chain the substituents are bound
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1 4-isopropyl-2-methyldecane Methyl on second C 4-isopropyl 4- t -butyl-2-methylheptane Name or draw the molecule below
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I Br 2-bromo-3-ethyl-4-iodo-5-methylheptane Cl Cl Cl 1,1,2-trichlorobutane Name the molecules below
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More complex substituents Find the longest C chain Number the Carbons #1 is the C that’s bonded to the main chain The complex substituent name appears in parentheses
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3-ethyl-5-(1-ethyl-2-methylpropyl)nonane 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ethyl 1 2 3
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Physical Properties of Alkanes - alkanes are nonpolar hydrophobic - do not dissolve in water Boiling points - boiling point increases as the number of carbons & molecular weight increase - branched alkanes have a lower boiling point than linear or n
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chapter 3 - Start of chapter 3 lecture notes -Hydrocarbons...

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