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chapter 16 - Start of Chapter 16 Organic Text by Wade...

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Start of Chapter 16 Organic Text by Wade
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Molecular orbitals are generated when you make a molecule Two atoms approach one another with atomic orbitals that are half-full the orbitals can interact in two ways Way 1: the electron phases match-up + This allows the atomic orbitals To combine and form a bond Makes a bonding molecular orbital Way 2: the electron phases do not match-up + This causes the orbitals to repel one another Makes an antibonding molecular orbital For any given molecule the number of molecular orbitals is equal to the number of atomic orbitals that combined to make that molecule
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Draw the pi molecular orbital diagram for this molecule: There are 2 Pi bonds here each pi bond was formed by 2 C atomic orbitals coming together & each bond has 2 electrons So, I will get 4 molecular orbitals to hold 4 electrons! There are 4 ways the atomic orbitals can combine together Way 1 Way 4 Way 2 Way 3 Left-to-right line-up front-to-back line-up All 4 line-up Lowest ENERGY None line-up Highest ENERGY = in energy
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E Now insert the 4 electrons each orbital will hold 2 electrons Bonding M.O. Anti-bonding M.O. Nonbonding M.O. Molecular orbital diagram redrawn
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Polygon Rule The molecular orbital energy diagram of a regular, completely conjugated ring molecule has the same overall shape as the molecule with a single point at the bottom.
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