Chapter 2 Key Words - Chapter 2 Key Words Element...

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Chapter 2 Key Words: Element – substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances Oxygen – (O) one of the four main elements that make up organisms Carbon - (C) one of the four main elements that make up organisms Hydrogen – (H) one of the four main elements that make up organisms Nitrogen – (N) one of the four main elements that make up organisms Trace elements – elements that are required in small amounts; example include iron, iodine, and copper Atom – smallest possible unit of an element that retains its chemical properties Protons – positively charged subatomic particle that is found in the nucleus Neutrons – neutrally charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus Electrons – negatively charged subatomic particle that spin around the nucleus in an electron cloud; are smaller than the other subatomic particles Isotope – an element that differs in the amount of neutrons in the nucleus Compound – two or more atoms combined in a fixed ratio Chemical reaction – a reaction in which a chemical change has taken place; an example is H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 0 (l) Chemical Bonds – holds atoms together; example include ionic, covalent, or hydrogen bonds Ionic bond – formed between two atoms when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to the other; between a cation and an anion Covalent bond – formed when electrons are shared between atoms Non-polar covalent – when the electrons are shared equally between the atoms Polar covalent – when the electrons are shared unequally between atoms
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