Manajemen kelompok 6.docx - PLANNING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Group 6 Benaya Pradipta-F0319029 Reza May Kissany-F0319116 PLANNING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

Manajemen kelompok 6.docx - PLANNING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES...

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PLANNING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Group 6 : Benaya Pradipta-F0319029 Reza May Kissany-F0319116
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PLANNING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Managers use Planning tools and techniques to help their organization be more efficient and effective. There are three module of Planning tools and techniques. Techniques For Assessing The Environment Techniques For Allocating Resources Contemporary Planning Techniques Techniques for Assessing the Environment We discussed the importance of assessing the organization’s environment. Three techniques help managers do that: environmental scanning, forecasting, and benchmarking. Environmental Scanning The screening of information to anticipate and interpret changes in the environment. It helps organizations to develop their strategies accordingly. Competitor intelligence - gathering information about one’s competitors. It helps to answer May questions: who are competitors? What are they doing? How they doing? A variety of sources of information is easily accessible. reverse engineering - analyze a competitor’s product becomes illegal corporate spying when proprietary\ownership materials or trade secrets are stolen fine line between what is legal and ethical and what is legal but unethical internet opened vast sources of data. Global scanning - screening of information on global forces that might affect an organization that has global interests. Requires more extensive procedures than those used for scanning the domestic environment it might require subscription in different international journals, information basis, periodicals. Forecasting The second technique managers can use to assess the environment is forecasting. Forecasting is an important part of planning and managers need forecasts that will allow them to predict future events effectively and in a timely manner. Environmental scanning establishes the basis for forecasts, which are predictions of outcomes. Virtually any component in an organization’s environment can be forecasted. Let’s look at how managers forecast and the effectiveness of those forecasts. Forecasting Techniques Forecasting techniques fall into two categories: quantitative and qualitative.
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Quantitative forecasting applies a set of mathematical rules to a series of past data to predict outcomes. These techniques are preferred when managers have sufficient hard data that can be used. Qualitative forecasting , in contrast, uses the judgment and opinions of knowledgeable individuals to predict outcomes. Qualitative techniques typically are used when precise data are limited or hard to obtain. Technique Description Application Quantitative Time series analysis Fits a trend line to a mathematical equation and projects into the future by means of this equation Predicting next quarter’s sales on the basis of 4 years of previous sales data Regression models Predicts one variable on the basis of known or assumed other variables Seeking factors that will predict a certain level of sales (e.g., price, advertising expenditures) Econometric models Uses a set of regression
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