6 Integrated Pest Management.pdf - Integrated Pest Management Learning Objectives Create an understanding of IPM Importance of IPM to Producers

6 Integrated Pest Management.pdf - Integrated Pest...

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Unformatted text preview: Integrated Pest Management Learning Objectives Create an understanding of IPM Importance of IPM to Producers Importance of IPM to the environment Importance of IPM to human health and safety What are IPM strategies Advantages and limitations to IPM What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) ? Why Study IPM? Why a new approach to pest management is needed: needed: – 1920’s cotton pest management – “Pesticide Treadmill” of 1960’s – 1970’s Pesticide resistance Secondary pest outbreaks Environmental concerns – IPM concept “reborn” in 1970’s IPM is: A pest management philosophy that utilizes all suitable pest management techniques and methods to keep pest populations below economically injurious levels. Each pest management technique must be environmentally sound and compatible with producer objectives. “A pest management philosophy….. “ – Recognizes there is no “cure“cure-all” in pest control. Dependence on any one pest management method will have undesirable effects. – Determine and correct the cause of the pest problem. Understanding Pest biology and ecology is essential. Manipulate the environment to the crop’s advantage and to the detriment of the pest. – Recognizes that eradication of a pest is seldom necessary or even desirable, and generally not possible. Some damage is unavoidable and acceptable IPM is a continuum, not an end. Good Fair Better Poor Best “Utilizes all suitable pest management tactics…………..” Pesticides Cultural Mechanical Sanitary Natural Biological Host Plant Resistance NOTE: Some tactics fall Into several categories. Should Pesticides be used in an IPM Program? Pesticides can to be used in an IPM program, however only as a last resort and of course in a manner that is legal. Pesticides are to be used when there is no risk of environmental damage or when benefits outweigh the risks. Use pesticides only when other control practices aren’t available, economical or practical. Must monitor pest populations in the field. – – – – Identify the pest Compare pest population and the economic threshold Life stage susceptible to pesticide? Crop stage and preventable loss. What is “Cultural Control” Agronomic practices that are designed to: – Optimize growing conditions for the crop. Anything that increases a crop’s competitive edge will result in increased tolerance to pests often resulting in reduced pesticide use. – Create unfavorable conditions for the pest What is Mechanical Control? Uses machinery and/or other tools to control pests – Tillage – Physical barriers What is Sanitary Control? Methods to avoid introducing a pest into a field – Cleaning field equipment – Planting certified seed – Quarantines What is Natural Control? – Enhancement of naturally occurring pest management methods Beneficial insects Beneficial diseases What is Biological Control? Manipulation of biological organism to control pests – Release of predators/parasites/disease of an insect or weed – Can be time consuming, expensive and difficult What is Host Plant Resistance? Manipulating the crop to withstand or tolerate pests – Natural breeding method – Genetically modified plants – Not a permanent method of control – Examples: GlandularGlandular-haired Alfalfa, Bt Corn, “To Keep Pests Below the Economic Injury Level” Economic Injury Level: – Cost of control = $ amount of damage caused by the pest Includes amount of pest damage Cost of each control practice – Are determined through extensive research – Economic Injury Level is the information that is necessary to develop an Economic Threshold, which is used by crop advisors Economic Threshold Pest Population at which a grower must take action to prevent a pest populations from reaching the economic injury level – Economic threshold is slightly below the economic injury level – Pest populations must be increasing Economic Injury Level Economic Threshold level Pest Density Pest Population Time Economic Threshold Concept doesn’t work for all pests and pest types Insects Weeds Diseases “Each Pest Control Technique Must be Environmentally Sound” Risk vs. Benefits And “Compatible with With Producers Objectives” They must be: Economically viable Effective Understandable Practice can be implemented in stages What IPM Is and Isn’t Stresses a multi disciplinary approach to pest management – – – – – – – Entomology Plant Pathology Nematology Weed Science Crop Sciences (Horticulture/Agronomy) Soil Science Ecology IPM is not static New Pests – Soybean aphids, bean leaf beetle, New Races/strains of pests – Western corn rootworm Weed Species shifts – Roundup ready technology – Tillage system Pesticide Resistance – Colorado Potato Beetle – Common lambsquarters Four Basic Principles of IPM 1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships 2) Requires advanced planning 3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices 4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions 1a. Understanding Crop Growth and Development How do you grow a healthy crop? When is the crop most susceptible to pest damage? When is the crop under stress? 1b. Understanding the Pest Proper ID Understanding of Pest Life cycle – When is it present – When is it most susceptible to controlcontrol– ”Weak Link” Meadow Spittlebug nymph Potato Leafhopper nymph Giant foxtail Large crabgrass 1c. Understanding the Pest and Their Life Cycle When is the pest present When is it most susceptible to control--”Weak Link” control When is too late to control 1d. Understanding the Environment How does it affect crop growth – Stress – Time within susceptible stage How it affects pest development – High mortality – High survival Basic Principles of IPM 1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships 2) Requires Advanced Planning 3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices 4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions Basic Principles of IPM 1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships 2) Requires Advanced Planning 3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices 4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions Basic Principles of IPM 1) Thorough understanding of the crop, pest, and the environment and their interrelationships 2) Requires Advanced Planning 3) Balances cost/benefits of all control practices 4) Requires routine monitoring of crop and pest conditions Potato leafhopper scouting Equipment: – 15 in diameter insect sweep net. Timing: – Start on regrowth of second crop alfalfa Frequency: – Scout once each week. Scouting pattern: – walk a WW-shaped pattern in the field Potato leafhopper scouting Take 20 consecutive sweeps in each of 5 areas along the WW-shaped pattern (100 total sweeps) Count the total number of Potato leafhopper nymphs and adults divide by 100 (total number of sweeps) Potato Leafhopper Economic Threshold Alfalfa height 3 inches Treat if PLH number are = or > than listed 0.2/sweep 6 inches 0.5/sweep 8-11 inches 1.0/sweep > 12 inches 2.0/sweep Benefits of an IPM Program Protects environment through elimination of unnecessary pesticide applications Improves Profitability Reduces risk of crop loss by a pest Peace of Mind Disadvantages of an IPM Program Requires a higher degree of management More labor intensive Success can be weather dependent Career opportunities in IPM Crop Advisors – Independent – Industry Ag. Industries – Sales (chemical, seed) – Research – Technical services Teaching – Cooperative Extension – High school – Technical college Education 2 or 4 year degree Major Field of Study – Agronomy – Soil Science Areas of interest – Weed science – Entomology – Plant Pathology Possible coursework Crop Management Weed Management Entomology Plant Nutrition Soil Conservation Ecology Plant Pathology Plant Physiology Business Management ...
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