PMI285_CK-1_2011

PMI285_CK-1_2011 - Bacterial Pore-Forming Toxins and...

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Bacterial Pore-Forming Toxins and Diseases PMI285: Cellular Basis of Disease 02/15/2011 / Cheng-Yuan Kao
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Infectious diseases 15% of deaths worldwide – WHO
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Infectious diseases Emerging, re-emerging, and deliberately emerging diseases U.S. death rate from infectious diseases started rising 30 years ago >100 bacterial species cause disease in humans Acne, blindness, botulism, cholera, dental cavities, diarrhea, dysentery, ear infections, flesh eating disease, gangrene, gonorrhea, hamburger disease, meningitis, pneumonia, tetanus, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, ulcers, whooping cough Armstrong et al . JAMA 1999;281:61-66
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Bacterial pathogenesis Virulence factors – Products that are needed by pathogens to cause disease – Variety (toxins, adhesins, invasins, etc.) – Pathogens can have a few or many http://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/
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Bacterial virulence factors Proteins or non-proteins Stringently or “loosely” regulated in the bacterium Expression of multiple virulence factors confer the disease producing properties on the pathogen Required for virulence or enhance it Defined or undefined biologic function with defined or undefined mechanisms of action– Single or multiple functions (effects)
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Actions of bacterial protein toxins Facilitate spread through tissues Damage cell membranes Immunomodulatory http://www.biken.osaka-u.ac.jp/act/act_horiguchi_e.php Inhibit protein synthesis Inhibit release of neurotransmitters
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Different bacterial protein toxin categories Sub-unit Proteolytic Pore-forming Pyrogenic http://wenliang.myweb.uga.edu/mystudy/immunology/
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Sub-unit (A-B) Toxins A sub-unit – enzymatic (toxic) activity – Protein synthesis inhibitors Examples: Cholera toxin; Shiga toxin
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PMI285_CK-1_2011 - Bacterial Pore-Forming Toxins and...

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