PSYC 213 - Chapter 4

PSYC 213 - Chapter 4 - A lexandra Fischer Chapter 4...

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Alexandra Fischer Chapter 4 – Attention p. 99-130 Introduction : Example of Sam driving and attending to several different things (meeting Susan, listening to radio, driving) and then when boy runs into street he almost automatically changes lanes to avoid boy, during this time he is solely attending to avoiding the boy and does not consciously process other parts of the environment around him Attention – the process of concentrating on specific features of the environment, or on certain thoughts or activities; process usually leads to exclusion of other features of environment Attention involves engagement of mind and this engagement can affect our experience William James made connection between attention and what is happening in the mind - Essentially said that we focus on some things to the exclusion of others Attention is central to many aspects of cognition - Perception – paying attention to something increases changes that you will perceive it - Memory – you are more likely to remember something if you were paying attention to it - Language – reading a sentence involves paying momentary attention to the words in the sentence - Problem solving – success in solving the problem depends on what part of the problem captures your attention Flow Diagram : Selective attention – How well can we focus on one message? What model best explains selective attention? Divided attention – What factors determine whether we can pay attention to more than one thing at a time? Visual attention – How does attention work when we look at visual objects or a visual scene? Selective Attention: When Does Selection Occur ? :
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Alexandra Fischer - Selective attention – the ability to focus on one message and ignore all others - Most early research was only selective attention with experiments indicating that if we are paying attention to one message, it is difficult or impossible to take in information in another message presented at the same time - Demonstration: Hearing two messages at once o When you read a text out loud and someone else is reading a different text out loud, you will remember the text which you were reading, but not much information is retained on the other person’s text o This is an example of dichotic listening first performed by Colin Cherry (1953) - Method: Dichotic Listening o One message is presented in the left ear and another message is presented to the right ear o Subjects instructed to pay attention to one message in one ear and repeat message aloud ( shadowing ) while ignoring the other message Shadowing – procedure used to ensure that participants are focusing attention on the attended message - Participants were only able to identify that there was another message (unattended message) and could identify it as either male or female - Demonstrated cocktail party phenomenon – the ability to pay attention to one message and ignore all other messages - But how is the selection of the attended message achieved? Early Selection: Broadbent’s Filter Model
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PSYC 213 - Chapter 4 - A lexandra Fischer Chapter 4...

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