PSYC 213 - Chapter 5

PSYC 213 - Chapter 5 - Chapter 5: Short-Term and Working...

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Chapter 5: Short-Term and Working Memory WHAT IS MEMORY? -Memory is the processes involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information after it is no longer present. The Purposes of Memory -Many things depend on memory because most things we do depend on remembering what we have experience in the past. -We can demonstrate the importance of memory by considering what happens to people's lives when they lose their memory. E.g. Clive Wearing (2000, 2005) -Wearing had damage to the parts of his temporal lobe that are important for forming new memories. He can only remember what has happened in the past one or two minutes. -Wearing's loss of memory has stopped him from continuing to participate in life in any meaningful way, and he needs to be constantly cared for by others. -In this chapter we will describe the basic principles of memory and normal memory processes. The Modal Model of Memory (proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968) -The three major structural features (stages) of the modal model: (Fig. 5.3) 1) Sensory memory: initial stage that holds all incoming information for seconds or less. It is the retention of the effects of sensory stimulation for brief periods of time. 2) Short-term memory (STM): holds 5-7 items for about 15-30 seconds. (We will describe the characteristics of STM in this chapter.) 3) Long-term memory (LTM): able to hold a large amount of information for years or decades. (We will describe LTM in chapters 6 and 7.) - Control processe s in the modal model: active processes that a person controls and that can differ depending on the task. E.g.- - Rehearsal: repeating a stimulus to keep it in mind, e.g. repeating a telephone number after looking it up in a phone book -Strategies you might use to make a stimulus more memorable, e.g. setting the numbers in a phone number to a song. -Selective attention: focusing on which information to remember. -Retrieval: remembering information stored in LTM, so information from LTM reenters STM to be used. -this shows that the components of memory act together, e.g. before we can become aware of information stored in LTM, it must move back into STM. SENSORY MEMORY 1
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The Sparkler's Trail and the Projector's Shutter: demonstrations of sensory memory. -Sparklers appear to create a trail of light when they are moved rapidly, but this is because of the " persistence of vision ," where perception of light is briefly held in the mind. -During a film projection, images are flashed on the screen 24 per second, with each separated by a brief period of darkness. A person sees the progression of pictures as movement and misses the dark intervals because the persistence of vision from each frame fills in the darkness. (If the dark periods are too long, flickering is perceived.) Sperling's Experiment: Measuring the Visual Icon (1960 study of persistence of vision) -Experiments with showing a matrix of 12 letters for 50 milliseconds. 1) Experiment with
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PSYC 213 - Chapter 5 - Chapter 5: Short-Term and Working...

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