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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7 – Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Introduction : As we have seen in previous chapters (5 & 6), the process of memory is complex. Memory is a “stamp pad of experience”, a place where information comes in and is automatically stored for future reference. With all this, we now must consider how memory operates in the environment. For example, in a day, how much do we remember hours, days or even a year after even the smallest thing happened? Typically, we will only remember a few of the many things that happen to us in a day. Flow Diagram for this Chapter (Figure 7.1) : Prospective Memory and Autobiographical Memory • How do we remember things we need to do later? • What events do people remember over their life span? ↓ How are Memories Created • How do we create memories by combining what happened with creative mental processes? ↓ Causes of Memory Error • What kinds of things can cause distortions of memory? ↓ Some Practical Implications • What does memory research tell us about errors in eyewitness testimony and about remembering traumatic events? Prospective Memory: What I’m going to do later- Prospective Memory – remembering to perform intended actions (ex: going to class, taking your books to school, keeping an evening appointment, or taking medications). o There are two components necessary for successful prospective memory performance: 1. Remembering what you want to do; 2. Remembering to do it at the right time. o This may be easy for things that reoccur, but a little more tough for things occurring occasionally - ∴ we need cues to remind us of these.- Giles Einstein and Mark McDaniel (1990) hypothesized that this previous type of memory might be better with distinctive cues as oppose to regular. o Why? Because: (example from book) Delivering msg to Ralph: familiar (He could trigger associations distraction) Delivering a message to a stranger is a lot more distinctive because it stands out more than someone you are familiar with.- Study to demonstrate: Participants were shown either familiar words (rake, method) or unfamiliar words (sone, monad) and were told to push a button when seeing the cue word. o In Figure 7.2, we see that the unfamiliar cues result in better perspective memory. Correct responses were three times more likely for these. o There are two types of tasks. o Event-based tasks (Such as delivering a message to Ralph, or pressing on the button when seeing a cue word). o Time-based tasks (Remembering to do something at a specific time- Ex: Taking a pill every morning for the next two weeks). More difficult than the event-based, because no cue.- Daniel Schacter (2001) suggests that creating cues turning time-based tasks into event-based tasks would be a good solution....
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2011 for the course PSYC 213 taught by Professor Levitin during the Winter '08 term at McGill.
- Winter '08