PSYC 213 - Chapter 7

PSYC 213 - Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 Everyday Memory and Memory...

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Chapter 7 – Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Introduction : As we have seen in previous chapters (5 & 6), the process of memory is complex. Memory is a “stamp pad of experience”, a place where information comes in and is automatically stored for future reference. With all this, we now must consider how memory operates in the environment. For example, in a day, how much do we remember hours, days or even a year after even the smallest thing happened? Typically, we will only remember a few of the many things that happen to us in a day. Flow Diagram for this Chapter (Figure 7.1) : Prospective Memory and Autobiographical Memory How do we remember things we need to do later? What events do people remember over their life span? How are Memories Created How do we create memories by combining what happened with creative mental processes? Causes of Memory Error What kinds of things can cause distortions of memory? Some Practical Implications What does memory research tell us about errors in eyewitness testimony and about remembering traumatic events? Prospective Memory: What I’m going to do later - Prospective Memory – remembering to perform intended actions (ex: going to class, taking your books to school, keeping an evening appointment, or taking medications). o There are two components necessary for successful prospective memory performance: 1. Remembering what you want to do;
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2. Remembering to do it at the right time. o This may be easy for things that reoccur, but a little more tough for things occurring occasionally - we need cues to remind us of these. - Giles Einstein and Mark McDaniel (1990) hypothesized that this previous type of memory might be better with distinctive cues as oppose to regular. o Why? Because: (example from book) Delivering msg to Ralph: familiar (He could trigger associations distraction) Delivering a message to a stranger is a lot more distinctive because it stands out more than someone you are familiar with. - Study to demonstrate: Participants were shown either familiar words (rake, method) or unfamiliar words (sone, monad) and were told to push a button when seeing the cue word. o In Figure 7.2, we see that the unfamiliar cues result in better perspective memory. Correct responses were three times more likely for these. o There are two types of tasks. o Event-based tasks (Such as delivering a message to Ralph, or pressing on the button when seeing a cue word). o Time-based tasks (Remembering to do something at a specific time- Ex: Taking a pill every morning for the next two weeks). More difficult than the event-based, because no cue. - Daniel Schacter (2001) suggests that creating cues turning time-based tasks into event-based tasks would be a good solution. o Example: Putting your pills next to your toothbrush to remind you to take them after brushing your teeth, as you do every morning.
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