PSYC 211 - Chapter 3

PSYC 211 - Chapter 3 - origure : :anatomicalsections system...

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Figure : anatomical directions Figure : planes of sections e : four lobes of the cerebral cortex jor components of the limbic system of the basal ganglia and diencephalon brain divisions with major structures CHAPTER 3: STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Basic Features of the Nervous System Neuraxis: an imaginary line drawn through the center of the length of the central nervous system (CNS), from the bottom of the spinal cord to the front of the forebrain. Ipsilateral: located on the same side of the body Contralateral : located on the opposite side of the body. o Ex: left cerebral cortex controls movements on the right hand. Transverse plane : this gives us cross sections or frontal sections – which is a slice through the brain parallel to the forehead Horizontal plane : a slice through the brain parallel to the ground Sagittal plane : a slice through the brain parallel to the Neuraxis and perpendicular to the ground An Overview The nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, which makes up the central nervous system (CNS). The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and peripheral ganglia. 1
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The brain is encased on a bony skull and floats in cerebrospinal fluid. It is also guarded by the blood-brain barrier. The brain receives oxygen through the blood flow to the brain. This is essential to the health of the brain; a one-second interruption can cause the brain to use up its source of oxygen. A six-second interruption can cause unconsciousness and subsequently brain damage. Meninges Meninges : the three layers of tissue that encase the CNS: the dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia matter. o Dura matter : the outermost of the meninges; tough and flexible o Arachnoid membrane : the middle layer. Web like appearance, soft and spongy. o Pia matter : the layer of the meninges that clings to the surface of the brain; thin and delicate o Subarachiod space : the fluid-filled space that cushions the brain. It is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia matter. It is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The PNS is covered with only the dura mater and the pia mater. The Ventricular System and Production of CSF Ventricle : one of the hollow spaces within the brain; filled with cerebrospinal fluid o Lateral ventricle : one of the two ventricles located in the center of the telencephalon. It is the largest of the ventricles. o Third ventricle : located at the midline of the brain. Its walls divide the brain into symmetrical halves. o Cerebral aqueduct : a long, narrow tube connecting the third and fourth ventricles. 2
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o Fourth ventricle : located between the cerebellum and the dorsal pons. Cerebrospinal fluid is extracted from the blood supply called
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PSYC 211 - Chapter 3 - origure : :anatomicalsections system...

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