PSYC 211 - Chapter 11

PSYC 211 - Chapter 11 - CHAPTER 11: EMOTION Introduction...

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CHAPTER 11: EMOTION Introduction Example of Mr. V, a patient who got a stroke in his right hemisphere which paralyzed the left side of his body. Although Mr. V is very intelligent, he fails to understand the implications of his disability. Mr. V is not emotionally affected by his disability, even though he knows he is paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair. Emotion : “positive or negative feelings that are produced by particular situations” Patterns of physiological responses and species-typical behaviours Note: Emotion not only involves feelings , but also behavioural responses . These behavioural responses play a role in survival and reproduction. Emotions as Response Patterns An emotional response is made up of three parts: 1. Behavioural - the action that occurs as a result of the situation (e.g. muscular movement) – a dog defending its territory first adopts an aggressive posture, growls and bares its teeth 2. Autonomic - provides energy for movement (e.g. sympathetic branch activity increases while activity of the parasympathetic branch decreases) – the dog’s heart rate increases 3. Hormonal - reinforces the autonomic response (e.g. increased blood flow and glucose conversion) Note: This chapter mainly focuses on negative emotions, in particular fear, anger, and disgust. Fear *The amygdala plays an important role in detecting dangerous stimuli. It also is involved in the effects of odours/pheromones on sexual and maternal behaviour. Research has shown that single neurons in various nuclei of the amygdala become active when emotionally relevant stimuli are presented (e.g. the smell of smoke) The amygdala ( or the amygdaloid complex) is located in the temporal lobes of the brain. It is made up of 12 regions, but the following 5 regions are the most important with relation to emotion. 1. Medial nucleus : composed of a group of subnuclei; they receive sensory input and relay info to the medial basal forebrain & hypothalamus; reproductive functions discussed in Ch 10. 1
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2. Lateral nucleus (LA): receives sensory info from all regions of the neocortex, thalamus and hippocampus & sends this info to the ventral striatum, and the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus; also sends info to the basal, accessory basal, and central nucleus of the amygdala 3. Central nucleus (CE): receives sensory info from the basal, lateral and accessory basal nuclei & sends this info to the many regions of the brain a. The CE is very important for the expression of emotional responses – the most important part of the brain for the expression of emotional responses provoked by aversive stimuli. If damaged, animals show no signs of fear when confronted with dangerous stimuli and are less likely to develop ulcers due to stress caused by aversive stimuli. If this region is electrically stimulated, animals show increased signs of fear and agitation. Long-term stimulation produces increased levels of stress and illness (e.g. ulcers). b.
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2011 for the course PSYC 211 taught by Professor Yogitachudasama during the Winter '09 term at McGill.

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PSYC 211 - Chapter 11 - CHAPTER 11: EMOTION Introduction...

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