PSYC 211 - Chapter 14

PSYC 211 - Chapter 14 - ion of a pathwayinferiorinferior...

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ctivation of a pathway at the primary visual cortex Posterior inferior temporal cortex s ventral stream of visual system to the fusiform gryus Whole word reading Phonological reading tion of a pathway at the primary visual cortex Posterior inferior temporal cortex eroparietal cortex to the inferior frontal cortex (near Broca’s area) CHAPTER 14: HUMAN COMMUNICATION Speech Production and Comprehension: Brain Mechanisms Knowledge of the physiology of language comes from: studying the effects of brain lesions on verbal abilities observation of stroke victims/ cerebrovascular accidents- A stroke; brain damage caused by occlusion or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain. (most common way.) PET and MRI in normal subjects Aphasia: Difficulty in producing or comprehending speech not produced by deafness or a simple motor deficit; caused by brain damage. The most important category of speech disorders Laterization The left hemisphere is speech dominant. If the left hemisphere is damaged or malformed early in life, right hemisphere may become dominant. Why is one hemisphere specialized for speech? Left hemisphere is more specialized for analysis of sequences of stimuli, occurring one after the other. Also, involved in control of sequences of voluntary movements. Speech is sequential; sequences of words compose of sequences of sounds. Right hemisphere is more specialized for analysis of space and geometrical shapes and forms. Damage makes it difficult to talk about maps, and complex geometrical forms or understanding what other people say about them. Involved in selecting and assembling elements of what we want to say. Involves control of prosody : the normal rhythm and stress in speech. Both hemispheres make a contribution to our language abilities. Speech Production In order to talk people: a) must have something to talk about- perceptions of current events and memories of events use brain mechanisms in the posterior part of the cerebral cortex (occipital, temporal and parietal lobes) b) must actually talk- conversion of perception and memories and thoughts into speech requires neural mechanisms in the frontal lobe. Broca’s Area-region of the frontal cortex, located just rostral to the base of the left primary motor cortex, that is necessary for normal speech production. Fig. 14.2. Broca’s Aphasia: A form of Aphasia characterized by agrammatism, anomia and extreme difficulty in speech articulation, caused by damage to Broca’s area. Characterized by slow, laborious, and non-fluent speech. The posterior part of cerebral hemispheres has something to say, but Broca’s Aphasia makes it difficult to express these thoughts. Damage must extend to surrounding regions of the frontal lobe and underlying subcortical white matter for
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PSYC 211 - Chapter 14 - ion of a pathwayinferiorinferior...

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