PSYC 211 - Chapter 17

PSYC 211 - Chapter 17 - CHAPTER 17 ANXIETY DISORDERS,...

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CHAPTER 17 – ANXIETY DISORDERS, AUTISTIC DISORDER, ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, AND STRESS Experiment done by Jacobsen, Wolfe, and Jackson (1935) o They tested some chimpanzees on a behavioural task: the animals had to be quiet and to remember the location of food that the experimenter placed behind a screen o One of the subjects (a chimpanzee names Becky) showed a violent reaction whenever she did the task wrong o The experimenters removed the aforementioned chimpanzee's frontal lobe; after this operation, Becky was no longer violent o Therefore, while the removal of frontal lobes would not cause intellectual impairment, the experiment performed by Jacobsen, Wolfe, and Jackson (1935) showed that "frontal lobe removal. ..eliminates frustrational behaviour " (Fulton, 1949) o Since then, many people have received prefrontal lobotomies - in order to reduce emotional distress; many of these people are still alive o These lobotomies were not as radical as the one performed on Becky; in humans, physicians would not remove parts of the brain; instead, they would injure the white matter (bundle of axons), therefore making impossible the passage of electrical signal from one neuron to another o Some of these operations were even done in the physician's office - the physician would "blindly" (because the physician would not see the brain) insert an ice pick-shaped instrument in the patient's frontal lobe and would move it back and forth, so as to destroy the white matter; this procedure - called transorbital leucotomy - would cause a great level of unnecessary damage o Side effects to this operation: Serious changes in personality People were becoming irresponsible and childish Inability to carry out plans Individuals became unemployable (unable to work) Emotional reactions (bad, but also good ones) were eliminated In the past: o The anxiety disorders, autism, and ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) were believed to be learned from parents, they were not seen as physiological disorders o Many mental disorders were seen as being produced by psychological , rather than biological factors Now: o Even though social factors - such as family, socio-economic status, or the environment - influence the chances that a person has to develop a mental disorder, physiological factors also play an important role in the development and outcome of a mental disease 1. Anxiety Disorders Characterized by unrealistic, unfounded fear and anxiety a. Panic Disorder Description o Episodic attacks of acute anxiety o The disease usually has its onset in early adulthood; women - 2.5 times more likely to have it than men o Basic symptoms of panic attack seem to be universal - shortness of breath, clammy sweat, irregular heartbeat, dizziness, faintness, feelings of unreality; the victim feels he/she is going to die o Anticipatory anxiety (the fear that another panic attack will come)- many people suffer from it between two panic attacks => this can lead to agoraphobia = fear of being in open spaces (in the 1
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case of a panic attack, these people fear that escaping from open spaces - e.g. Marketplace - might be
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PSYC 211 - Chapter 17 - CHAPTER 17 ANXIETY DISORDERS,...

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